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Sensory ability in the narwhal tooth organ system. Correspondence to: Martin T. Nweeia, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterial Sciences, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA. E-mail: Martin_nweeia@hsdm.harvard.edu. Delta Dental of Wisconsin, P.O. Box 828, Stevens Point, WI Search for more papers by this author. Orthopaedic Research Center, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Department of essayer, Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA Department of thesis for ageing, Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by essayer aion gratuit, this author. Carlson School of search, Management, University of Minnesota, 321 19th Ave. S., Minneapolis, MN Search for more papers by this author. Arctic Research Division, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Search for more papers by essayer aion gratuit, this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by this author.

Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for more papers by this author. Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for more papers by this author. Arctic Research Center, Institute of deviance is relative, Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej, Roskilde, Denmark Search for more papers by this author. National Institute of essayer aion gratuit, Standards and is relative essay, Technology, ADAF Paffenbarger Research Center, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD Search for essayer aion gratuit more papers by deviance is relative essay, this author. Veterinary Services, Calgary Zoo, 1300 Zoo Rd. NE, Calgary, AB, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by this author. Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of essayer aion gratuit, Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for good thesis more papers by this author. First published: 18 March 2014 Full publication history DOI: 10.1002/ar.22886 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 6 articles Check for updates.

Animal Care : Animal Protocol, 04384. Aion Gratuit. Office of Research Subject Protection, Harvard Medical School. The erupted tusk of the narwhal exhibits sensory ability. The hypothesized sensory pathway begins with ocean water entering through cementum channels to a network of thesis statement against abortion, patent dentinal tubules extending from the dentinocementum junction to the inner pulpal wall. Circumpulpal sensory structures then signal pulpal nerves terminating near the base of the tusk. The maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve then transmits this sensory information to the brain. This sensory pathway was first described in published results of essayer, patent dentinal tubules, and evidence from dissection of tusk nerve connection via the good statement, maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. Essayer Aion Gratuit. New evidence presented here indicates that the patent dentinal tubules communicate with open channels through a porous cementum from the ocean environment. Essay. The ability of aion gratuit, pulpal tissue to react to external stimuli is supported by immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers in the pulp and gene expression of pulpal sensory nerve tissue. Final confirmation of sensory ability is demonstrated by significant changes in search, heart rate when alternating solutions of high-salt and fresh water are exposed to the external tusk surface.

Additional supporting information for aion function includes new observations of dentinal tubule networks evident in unerupted tusks, female erupted tusks, and vestigial teeth. New findings of sexual foraging divergence documented by stable isotope and deviance is relative essay, fatty acid results add to the discussion of the functional significance of the narwhal tusk. The combined evidence suggests multiple tusk functions may have driven the tooth organ system's evolutionary development and persistence. Anat Rec, 297:599617, 2014. Aion. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The functional significance of the erupted narwhal tusk has been the subject of conjecture and theory since the writings of Albertus Magnus in statement for ageing, 1495 (Magnus, 1495). It has been thought to serve as an essayer aion gratuit, acoustic probe (Best, 1981; Reeves and Mitchell, 1981), possibly associated with sound transmission (Ford and Fisher, 1978; Best, unpublished B.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1972); a thermal regulator (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977); a swimming rudder (Kingsley and Ramsay, 1988); a breathing organ; a spear for hunting or finding food (Vibe, 1950; Harrison and King, 1965; Ellis, 1980; Bruemmer, 1993); an aggressive weapon in interspecific fighting (Brown, 1868; Beddard, 1900; Lowe, 1906; Geist et al., 1960) or self-defense against predators (Buckland, 1882; Gray, 1889: Freuchen, 1935); and a tool used for breaking the ice (Scoresby, 1820; Tomlin, 1967), digging (Freuchen, 1935; Pederson, 1960; Newman, 1971), or resting on ice (Porsild, 1918). Many studies describe the tusk as a secondary sexual characteristic used in aggressive encounters or intraspecific display (Lowe, 1906; Norman and Fraser, 1949; Miller, 1955; Silverman, 1979) associated with tusk fracture and head scarring (Porsild, 1922; Silverman and Dunbar, 1980), and to problem essay establish social hierarchy amongst males (Scoresby, 1820; Hartwig, 1874; Mansfield et al., 1975; Silverman and Dunbar, 1980; Gerson and Hickie, 1985). Examining the narwhal tooth organ system through a multidisciplinary approach that combines studies of essayer, anatomy, morphology, histology, neurophysiology, genetics, and diet gives a more comprehensive view of its functional significance and highlights sensory ability as an thesis for ageing, added functional attribute. Narwhal teeth have unusual anatomical features. Essayer Gratuit. Among them are (1) a sinistral spiral morphology (Worm, 1655; Scoresby, 1823); (2) an services, extreme degree of tooth asymmetry in males, with a single left tusk expression and essayer aion gratuit, embedded right tusk (Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (3) an extreme expression of of children, sexual dimorphism, with the aion, male having an erupted left canine tusk reaching 2.6 m and syllabus, the female commonly with right and left embedded tusks, often less than 33 cm (Sonnini and essayer aion, Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (4) a unique form of tooth asymmetry in a double-tusked expression, since the morphology of the spiral remains sinistral for umi dissertation search both left and right antemeres, and the left tusk is often slightly longer than the right (Worm, 1655; Sonnini and gratuit, Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (5) a horizontal direction of statement, eruption in both erupted and unerupted tusk forms (Linné et al., 1792: Egede and Wood, 1818); and (6) perforation of the tooth through the upper lip (Hampe, 1737; Brisson, 1756; Crantz, 1767; Donndorff, 1792).

Though narwhal teeth share many anatomical characteristics with other tusked animals including a lack of enamel (Ishiyama, 1987), the presence of essayer gratuit, cementum, dentin, pulpal tissue and their associated structures (Seltzer and Bender, 2002; Berkovitz et al., 2002), and the presence of the maxillary division of the ias essay, fifth cranial nerve associated with tooth innervation (Nweeia et al., 2009), they have many distinguishing features. Among them are a cementum layer overlying over essayer, the erupted canine (Nweeia et al., 2012) tusk, a patent network of dentinal tubules through the full thickness of dentin (Nweeia et al., 2009; Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and pulpal soft tissues, extending the full length of the tooth, diminishing only in diameter with age (Pederson, 1931; Dow and statement for ageing, Hollenberg, 1977; Nweeia et al., 2009). Initial scanning electron micrographs of the erupted male narwhal tusk reveal patent dentinal tubules that extend the aion gratuit, full thickness of the dentin and correspond to lumina on the tusk surface. The tubules radiating outward from the dentin-pulpal wall are similar to essay on future of children those of humans and other mammals in essayer aion, diameter, though the spacing is three to five times wider. Limited scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been completed for other odontocetes, but suggests dentinal tubules are well occluded within the erupted portion of the dentinal layer for most odontocetes (Boyde, 1980). In cases where the is relative, dentinal tubules are patent through the full dentinal layer, such as the sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), they are covered by an enamel layer (Loch et al., 2012). Dentinal tubules have been described for other marine mammals, including the rough-toothed dolphin ( Steno bredanensis ) (Miyazaki, 1977), pantropical spotted dolphin ( Stenella attenuata ) (Myrick, 1980), grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus ) (Hewer, 1964), hooded seal ( Cystophora cristata ) (Mohr, 1966) harbor porpoise ( Phoecoena phoecoena ) (Perrin and essayer, Myrick, 1980), short-beaked dolphin ( Delphinus delphis ) (Gurevich et al., 1980), bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ), and pilot whale ( Globicephala melaena ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and the walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus ), hippopotamus ( Hippopotamus amphibious ), and statement, killer whale ( Orcinus orca ) (Locke, 2008). Open tubules are associated with sensory ability in mammals (Cuenin et al., 1991; Johnson and Brännström, 1974; Panapoulos et al., 1983), though normally expressed only in pathologic conditions for most other mammals. Studies of gratuit, nerve-associated tissue in the pulp of odontocete teeth are limited, though helpful in understanding function (Holland, 1994). Sensory innervation of good thesis statement abortion, mammalian teeth includes small myelinated A fibers and a majority of unmyelinated C sensory fibers (Seltzer and Bender, 2002).

The A fibers are associated with dentin and the odontoblastic layer (Kimberly and Byers, 1988; Ikeda et al., 1997), while the C fibers are more uniform, though more densely populated in peripulpal areas and along blood vessels (Wakisaka et al., 1987; Hildebrand et al., 1995). Both A and C fibers contain the gratuit, neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP (Silverman and Kruger, 1987; Fristad et al., 1994). Of Karachi Essay. In addition, C fibers contain the neuropeptide substance P (Casasco et al., 1990; Wakisaka, 1990). The presence of sensory-associated genes in the pulp is an indicator for sensory function in mammalian teeth. Though there is a lack of essayer aion, genomic information for the narwhal, techniques are available to measure the on future in india, gene expression profiles using a universal array platform to essayer aion de novo sequencing that are informative to identify sensory-associated genes associated with the deviance essay, pulp (Velculescu et al., 1995; Unneberg, 2003; Roth et al., 2004). Other techniques using sequenced genomes of marine mammals similar to the narwhal as well as humans are also useful.

Evolutionary patterns of mammalian tooth anatomy and morphology are driven by aion, diet (Anapol and of karachi city, Lee, 1994; Jernvall et al. 1996; Teaford and Ungar, 2000; Evans et al., 2007; Thewissen et al., 2007; Lucas et al., 2008). Thus, comparing the foraging habits of male and female narwhals can potentially provide useful information about the aion, erupted male tusk. Previous dietary studies comparing male and problem of karachi city essay, female narwhals from the Baffin Bay population have found no difference in essayer gratuit, stomach contents between the sexes (Finley and thesis, Gibb, 1982; Laidre and essayer aion, Heide-Jørgensen, 2005); however, smaller sample size of female narwhals has limited these analyses, and stomach contents can be biased since they only deviance is relative essay, provide information on the most recent meal from a specific foraging area. Stable isotope and fatty acid analyses provide long-term integrated dietary information to investigate if dietary differences exist between male and female narwhals in essayer aion, the Baffin Bay population. Both techniques investigate chemical signals in animal tissues which have incorporated isotopic and fatty acid values from their prey over various time frames, depending on problem of karachi essay, the tissue. The nitrogen stable isotope (δ 15 N) provides information on an organism's trophic level, while the carbon stable isotope (δ 13 C) provides information on the animal's spatial foraging location, benthic versus pelagic or inshore versus offshore (Peterson and Fry, 1987; Crawford et al., 2008; Newsome et al., 2010). Essayer Gratuit. Fatty acids are transferred relatively unmodified from prey tissues to predator tissues, and thus can also be used to determine and compare diet among groups of organisms (Iverson et al., 2004). Both analyses have been successfully used to investigate diet in marine mammals (Iverson et al., 2004; Newsome et al., 2010) including walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus ) (Dehn et al., 2007), bowhead ( Balaena mysticetus ), and deviance is relative essay, gray ( Eschrichtius robustus ) whales, and the narwhal's closest relative, the beluga whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) (Horstmann-Dehn et al., 2012). When the two analyses are used together and essayer, provide complementary results they can verify and confirm dietary interpretations, as was done in thesis, determining the essayer gratuit, primary prey for the beluga whale as arctic cod (Loseto et al., 2008, 2009) and for services search the bottlenose whale as Gonatus (Hooker et al., 2001).

Brännström's theory of dental sensitivity is the most widely accepted mammalian model to gratuit explain this sensory ability and syllabus, function for teeth. Gratuit. Changes to thesis statement for ageing the interstitial fluid flow within dentinal tubules changes the conformation of odontoblastic cells connected to a pulpal nerve plexus which sends signals of essayer aion, sensory perception to thesis against abortion the brain (Brännström, 1966). This theory explains the gratuit, known ability of teeth to sense environmental stimuli, and supports the umi dissertation search, evolutionary descriptions of tooth precursors as sensory organs (Lumsden, 1987). Human and other mammalian teeth are known to be capable of sensing external stimuli (Anderson, 1968; Haegerstam, 1976; Byers and Dong, 1983; Byers, 1984; Balam et al., 2005) such as temperature (Yamada et al., 1968; Jyväsjärvi and Kniffki, 1987; Ahn et al., 2012), pressure (Mengel et al., 1992), proprioception (Hassanali, 1997; Catania and Remple, 2002; Ozer et al., 2002), osmotic gradients, galvanic potential (Ramirez and Vanegas, 1989; Heyeraas et al., 1994), nocioception (Hu et al., 1978; Lisney, 1983; Narhi et al., 1984; Shigenaga et al., 1986; Byers et al., 1988; Iwata et al., 1998; Kawarada et al., 1999; Andrew and Matthews, 2000), and essayer gratuit, percussion (Ogawa et al., 2002; Watanabe et al., 2003). Sensory nerve fibers and associated nerve bundles are also found in the pulp of other toothed animals (Pischinger and Stockinger, 1968; Weissengruber et al., 2005). Problem Of Karachi. This sensory ability serves many different functions, such as protecting teeth against environmental insults and responding to age-related and pathological conditions (Hildebrand et al., 1995). Because narwhals expose these open tubules during normal function, they are capable of sensing one or more of these variables. The erupted male narwhal tusk exhibits sensory ability based on physiologic response of essayer aion gratuit, changing heart rate associated with tusk exposure to alternating solutions of problem, fresh and salt water, and the presence of sensory nerve-associated structures. A complete model of gratuit, tusk sensory function, from stimulus introduction to brain perception, is the primary objective of this investigation. In vivo testing of statement, this model to verify physiologic response to aion an introduced stimulus helps to confirm sensory ability.

Demonstration of this model includes: (1) an anatomical description of problem essay, open channels in a porous cementum layer covering the essayer, erupted tusk; (2) further and more complete imaging of a dentinal tubule network in various expressions of the narwhal tooth organ system, including the male erupted tusk, male and female unerupted tusks, and vestigial teeth in both sexes; (3) evidence of sensory-associated cells and tissue in the narwhal pulp and circumpulpal dentin; (4) detection of is relative, sensory-associated genes and antigens in the narwhal tusk pulp; (5) published findings of nerve connection at the base of the erupted tusk and continued connection to aion the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain; and (6) new results associating physiologic heart response in response to sensory stimuli of alternating fresh and high-salt water solutions introduced to the tusk. An intact, erupted tusk (“A”) including pulp tissuetaken from a male narwhal in essay on future, 2003, 48 km from gratuit, Pond Inlet, Baffin Island, in the eastern portion of deviance essay, Eclipse Sound, 24 km southwest of aion, Cape Graham Moore, Bylot Island [72N 36′ 53.1″, 75W 37′ 56.4]was sawn in the field into thesis 54 consecutive cross-sections measuring 3550 mm in axial length. Overall erupted tusk length was 218.4 cm, with diameter increasing from 14.8 mm at essayer aion, the tip to 57.4 mm at thesis statement against abortion, the base (Fig. 1A). Essayer Gratuit. Segments were fixed in 70% ethanol. Segment A-12 was processed to examine neuronal structures at the pulpal-dentin interface. Ias Essay. The midpoint of segment A-12 was located 45.7 cm from the tusk tip, with a 2.78 cm mean outer diameter and essayer aion gratuit, 0.87 cm mean pulp diameter. Segment A-12 was secondarily fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, decalcified in EDTA, post-fixed in formalin, and paraffin embedded. Ten-micron-thick sections were mounted on SuperFrost slides for immunohistochemistry. (1A, top ): Sections A-12 and syllabus, A-42 used in essayer aion, SEM dentinal tubule analysis and surface imaging of umi dissertation services search, cementum, taken from an essayer gratuit, erupted male narwhal tusk; (1B, bottom ): Pulp sections used in immunohistochemistry analysis. An intact dental pulp was extracted from syllabus, a narwhal tusk harvested near redundant text Kakiat Point, Arctic Bay, Baffin Island, in 2003 [72N 40′ 51.2″, 86W 41′ 16.9″].

The pulp was fixed in 70% ethanol for 2 months, then suspended in 10% neutral buffered formalin at 4C under 20 g of tension to maintain extension. Essayer Gratuit. Overall dimensions of the heavily vascularized dark red pulp were: length, 142.2 cm; diameters 0.3 cm (tip), 1.5 cm (mid), and ias essay syllabus, 4.8 cm (base/apical tusk). The pulp base was bulbous and calcified. Ten-micron-thick paraffin sections were prepared from four separate segments of the pulp (C, 1.7 cm from pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). Segment L represented the pulp tissue at the approximate base of the erupted tusk that would be exposed to seawater (Fig. 1B). A fetus was also collected and head dissected into separate maxilla and essayer gratuit, mandible sections and stored in RNAlater ® solution (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) and kept in ice until laboratory arrival. Tissue samples were brought under CITES Export Permits CA03FO1000005, CA05F01Q004, X0704-132/06, CA08F01Q0002, CA09F0W10001 and import permits 04US015415/9, 04US082589/9, 06US015415/9, US NMFS permits 932-1489-04 and 764-1703-00, and DFO transport permits A 02089, A 016505, 18469, 17378.

Examination of essay of children, channels through a porous cementum layer and a dentinal tubule network patent through the essayer aion, full thickness of dentin was completed after sections were prepared. Is Relative. Samples for SEM were sectioned using a water-cooled diamond saw, and polished with a series of abrasives through 4000 grit with silicon carbide abrasive paper using a rotating metallography table. The surfaces were then cleaned to remove surface debris, using a mild HCl acid etch followed by rinsing in dilute sodium hypochlorite. Essayer Gratuit. The cleaned sections were then washed and dried in deviance is relative, a vacuum desiccator and essayer, gold-sputter coated for syllabus SEM observation. Samples for essayer aion gratuit cementum examination were prepared by taking cross-sections of tusk segment A-42 sawn at 0.9-mm thickness with a precision low-speed water-cooled saw. Good Thesis Statement Against Abortion. Surface imaging of essayer, cementum was performed at 50× objective magnification using a Keyence super resolution digital microscope model VHX-S90BE, equipped with a VH-Z20R/Z20W lens and variable illumination adapter VH-K20. Reagents for immunohistochemistry of neuronal markers included calcitonin gene-related peptide antibody (anti-CGRP, ab81887, abcam), 200kD neurofilament heavy antibody (ab17126, abcam), substance P antibody (#20064, Immunostar), and isolectin IB4-AlexaFluor 488 conjugate (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen). While specific for the indicated antigens in one or more mammalian species, none of these antibodies had previously been tested in narwhals, thereby precluding inference from negative findings. Sections were processed by microwave antigen retrieval for 15 min in deviance is relative, citrate buffer solution, pH 6.0 (Antigen Unmasking Solution #H-3300 Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA).

Antibody localization involved peroxidase coupling and red color development with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (ABC kit and ImmPACT AEC Peroxidase Substrate kit, #SK-4206, Vector Laboratories). Primary antibodies were diluted 1/50 to 1/1000 for incubation and aion, were omitted for negative control sections; all sections were counterstained with aqueous hematoxylin. Of Children. Slides were imaged by light microscopy with a Nikon Eclipse 80i at aion gratuit, objective magnifications of 4× to 60× (oil). Since the narwhal has not been sequenced, a query of keywords “tooth” and good against abortion, “nerve” for the Tursiops truncatus genome was performed using the Ensembl database. The genes NGFR, DLX2, TFAP2A, and GLI3were the only ones that resulted from the aion, search. Primers were created for umi dissertation services all four using the Roche Universal Primer Design software, though the QRT-PCR assay for GLI3 failed. Another approach to identifying additional sensory genes was based on the human genome: FAM134B and WNK1 (formerly HSN2) genes have been shown to be involved in aion gratuit, hereditary sensory neuropathy type II, which has a pathology for the reduction or loss of the sensory perception of pain, temperature and of karachi essay, touch (Kurth, 2010). Essayer Aion Gratuit. These genes were cross-referenced to the Tursiops truncatus genome, and to our surprise, based on the Ensembl database search, there was a sequence similarity for these two genes.

The narwhal pulp tissue was stored in DNAgard (Biomatrica, San Diego, CA) and essay on future of children, the control samples (muscle tissue around the blow-hole and gingiva from the inner portion of the mandible) were placed in RNAlater solution following the respective company protocol within 15 min of access to a fetus collected at Kakiat Point, then all samples were stored at −20C until arrival at HC-LITT, where they were stored at essayer aion, −80C. Sections of these pulp and for ageing, control samples were obtained from multiple regions and weighed prior to homogenization. The Covaris t-PREP™ and essayer gratuit, S220 Focused-ultrasonicator (Covaris, Woburn, MA) were used to homogenize the pulp and control samples. Prior to deviance Adaptive Focused Acoustics™ on essayer gratuit, the S220 instrument, 250 μL of Qiagen Buffer RLT (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) was added to the samples. After processing, 750 μL of TRIzol LS was added to extract the RNA from the samples using the standard three-step phenol/chloroform extraction method according to the manufacturer's instructions and prior to making cDNA. Deviance Is Relative Essay. cDNA was synthesized from 1.5 µg of total RNA for essayer each sample using Roche reverse transcriptase. All assays were prepared using standard conditions in a master mix solution without any effort at assay optimization. For each data point, there were three replicates. The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed based on the Tursiops truncatus and essay on future of children in india, Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively.

The Ensembl database (http://uswest.ensembl.org) was utilized to project transcripts involved in sensory nerve functions by using the closest relative of the narwhal whose genome had been sequenced ( Tursiops truncatus http://uswest.ensembl.org/Tursiops_truncatus/Info/Index [Database version: 71.1]) (Hubbard et al., 2002; Flicek et al., 2012). The gene accession numbers were used in designing the essayer aion gratuit, primers for the housekeeping genes (Spinsanti et al., 2006). The Roche Universal ProbeLibrary probes and target-specific PCR primers were selected using the ProbeFinder Assay Design software (https://qpcr.probefinder.com/organism.jsp, “Other organism” selection) (Rozen and Skaletsky, 2002; Kuo et al., 2006). Please refer to Table 1 for primer sequences. The primers were used to confirm relative changes in mRNA levels by QRT-PCR using the Roche 480 LightCycler. Is Relative. Reactions were performed in microliter reaction volumes for gratuit six genes, using 1 μL of cDNA under the thesis statement against abortion, following conditions: 95C for 10 min, followed by 45 cycles of 95C for 10 s and 60C for gratuit 30 s (Kuo et al., 2006). Ias Essay. Expression data for the sensory genes were normalized relative to the housekeeping genes (Murphy et al., 2003; Khimani et al., 2005). Raw data were obtained and analyzed using the SBI software (System BioSciences, Mountain View, CA). The comparative C T method (ΔΔ C t) was chosen to essayer further calculate the relative expressions between the thesis for ageing, different groups. Carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) stable isotope analyses were performed on essayer aion gratuit, male ( n  = 91) and female ( n  = 91) narwhal skin samples collected by thesis statement against abortion, Inuit hunters in gratuit, the Canadian High Arctic from essay of children in india, 1982 to essayer aion gratuit 2009. Narwhal skin subsections of services search, approximately 0.5 g were freeze-dried, lipid-extracted, and analyzed at the University of Windsor for stable isotopes.

Burning of fossil fuels emits anthropogenic CO 2 that is essayer aion depleted in 13 C, resulting in increasingly depleted C animal tissue signals over the industrial period: this pattern is known as the Suess effect (Sonnerup et al., 1999). Carbon values were corrected to account for deviance is relative essay this depletion by calculating the atmospheric carbon value ( C atm ) in essayer aion gratuit, 1982 (the oldest sample included in the analysis) using δ 13 C atm  = −6.429 to 0.0060 exp (0.0217[ t −1740]), where t is the year (Feng, 1998). Atmospheric δ 13 C atm was calculated for each year samples were collected, and the difference between that value and the 1982 δ 13 C atm was subtracted from the measured δ 13 C to obtain a corrected carbon value. Is Relative Essay. For the analysis of fatty acids, blubber samples from female ( n  = 56) and male ( n  = 56) narwhals harvested near the community of essayer aion, Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada were used. Lipids were extracted from of karachi essay, narwhal blubber samples for gratuit fatty acid analysis using the modified Folch procedure (Folch et al., 1957; Budge et al., 2006) and converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). FAME were analyzed using the Agilent Technologies 7890A GC system. T-tests were used to test for differences in δ 13 C and δ 15 N between male and female narwhals.

Fatty acid values were converted to percentages, divided by the mean of the sample, and log-transformed (Kenkel, 2006). Ias Essay. A principal component analysis, which included 33 dietary fatty acids (Iverson et al., 2004), was followed by a multivariate ANOVA on essayer aion gratuit, the first five principal components (cumulatively describing over 70% of the data) to determine if males and females differed significantly in their fatty acid values. Problem Of Karachi City Essay. All statistical analyses were conducted using JMP 7.0.1. Alternating high-salt (41 ppt) and fresh-water solutions were used as stimuli to test the physiologic response of the narwhal tusk to environmental sensory stimuli. Selection of the stimulus was based on the potential relevance and importance of salt ions to the narwhal's ocean environment. Aion Gratuit. A tusk jacket was constructed from a 10.2 cm diameter by 45.0 cm length clear acrylic tube with a 0.64 cm wall thickness, which was cut in is relative, half longitudinally and hinged on one seam to essayer gratuit facilitate immediate closure at the other seam.

At each end a 5.7 cm wide by 3.8 cm thick piece of open-celled foam was glued to ias essay the inner surface of the tube, with an overall diameter of 10.2 cm and aion gratuit, an inner open diameter of 2.8 cm, to form a centering gasket around the tusk at is relative essay, the tube ends. A one-way hose valve was fastened to the center of the aion, tusk jacket, and of children, Versilic Formulation SPX-70 I.B. tubing connected the essayer aion gratuit, jacket to an MSR 6-L Dromedary solution storage bag. Statement. Quick-connect valves allowed easy exchange of solution storage bags filled with fresh-water or high-salt solutions. The Midmark Holter IQ electrocardiograph (ECG) with a five-lead montage and eight-second data averaging was used for the six male narwhal samples tested in Tremblay Sound (TS) near the base of the Alpha River outside Pond Inlet [72N 21′ 38″, 81W 05′ 59″], two each in years 2010, 2011, and 2012. Heart rate response was selected as a physiologic indicator, since sudden increases in salt ion concentrations would presumably be interpreted by aion gratuit, narwhals as a sign that ice entrapment was threatening. Thus, during the introduction of high-salt solutions narwhal heart rate was expected to ias essay rise due to physiologic response to essayer aion gratuit rapid ice formation; conversely, heart rate was expected to fall during the introduction of problem essay, fresh water, as this stimulus is associated with the waters of aion gratuit, summer inlets where ice is melting and there are fresh-water run-offs. The narwhals were captured from land-based camps using an anchored net set perpendicular to the shore, and after capture brought to good statement abortion shore using standard techniques established for tagging (Dietz et al., 2001, 2008). After the narwhals were stabilized, subdermal electrodes were inserted in essayer aion, a five-lead montage. Electrode leads for ECG data collection were Grass Technologies subdermal Model F-E7 right-angled, 10 mm, 30-gage monopolar needles with 244 cm lead wires. IQ Manager software with real-time signal collection was used with the Holter IQ. Eight-second interval averages were used in on future, the final analysis.

Solutions of 41 ppt salt-water were made by adding Instant Ocean™ saltwater synthetic salt crystals to inlet brackish sea water (1822 ppt); salt concentration was confirmed using the Omega CDH-287 meter. Fresh-water solutions were gathered from nearby glacial run-off streams that were used as drinking water. McCormick red and green food coloring dyes were added (10 drops/gallon) to identify the two different solutions, and to verify the clearing of one solution in the tusk jacket and displacement by the alternating solution. Essayer Aion Gratuit. The two dye colors were interchanged between high-salt and fresh-water solutions to eliminate the possibility of food coloring sensitivity as another variable detected by the tusk, or color dispersion observed by the animal. The ECG was turned on after electrode attachment. After a few minutes of heart monitoring, the tusk jacket was attached at umi dissertation services search, or near the base of the essayer, tusk, and alternating solutions of high-salt and fresh water were injected into the tusk jacket. Temperature of these stored solutions was kept at ambient sea water level by keeping them in Dromedary™ bags submerged in nearby seawater. Time periods for thesis abortion the solution injections were varied between animals to account for any effect on changes in heart rate response linked to capture time. Aion. Heart rate was monitored continuously during the solution exchange and thesis, dwell times until all experiments were completed. The Midmark Holter IQ™ instrument allowed real-time heart rate data to be stored and essayer aion gratuit, later segmented into 8-s averaging for the sample of six male narwhals.

The data recording was electronically marked at on future, the beginning of each stimulus period to provide an accurate association of recorded heart rate to stimulus. The five-lead montage provided a manageable configuration of electrodes for field use, and very few interruptions in aion gratuit, data were experienced due to displacement of the problem of karachi, subdermal electrodes. An ideal heart beat wave form was identified to aion gratuit correlate with data recording and analysis (Fig. 2). Animal health and safety is always the primary concern, and all experiments cease and the animal is released at the first sign of overt stress when indicated by the monitoring veterinarian. Ias Essay. Fortunately, none of the animals exhibited problems requiring early release, and most experiments, tagging, and specimen collections were completed within 30 min.

Experiments and research were conducted under Canadian Department of essayer aion gratuit, Fisheries and Oceans' Animal Care Committee permits FWI-ACC-20082009-007 and FWI-ACC-2008-2009-008 and Animal Use Protocol permits FWI-ACC-2009-024, FWI-ACC-2010-008, FWI-ACC-2011-016, and FWI-ACC-2012-009. Deviance Is Relative Essay. Research protocol was established in the United States under the Harvard Medical Area Standing Committee on Animals, Animal Experimentation Protocol 04384. The Hunters and Trappers Organization (HTO) in Pond Inlet, Nunavut voted to approve these research protocols in aion, TS. A generalized least squares split-plot nested analysis was chosen to statement for ageing account for essayer aion gratuit the unbalanced experimental design where there was variation in statement against abortion, the length of the stimulus periods, and there was a reasonable likelihood that residuals would correlate between stimuli within each individual animal. Aion. Statistical analysis on ias essay syllabus, the six animals captured at TS was done with whales and water treatments as the primary fixed factors and split-plots nested within whales and water treatments, to determine parameter estimates and the significance levels of the fixed factors and factor interactions, fitting the model: µ  +  W i  +  T j  + (WT) ij k  +  ε ijkl  +  γ (ij). This model included both split-plot and random error to essayer aion gratuit account for the unbalanced experimental design where treatment intervals were not equal in length or number.

The model also accounted for thesis statement for ageing the assumption that residuals would be correlated within each individual animal. No attempt was made to identify or exclude outliers in the data, although a few data points appeared to be potential outliers. Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) simultaneous confidence intervals were generated at 95% to evaluate the essayer gratuit, sizes of the differences among the whales' mean heart rates. A Student's t 95% confidence interval estimate was constructed to evaluate the size of the on future, difference between treatment mean heart rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using JMP Pro 10.0.0. Results confirmed multiple indicators that support the hypothesis of a sensory pathway in the erupted narwhal tusk. Scanning electron micrographs of patent dentinal tubule networks provide evidence of the pathway for sensory conduction in multiple forms of gratuit, narwhal tooth expression, including both male and female erupted tusks, unerupted tusks, and vestigial teeth (Fig. 3). Narwhal electrocardiogram wave components from TS sample Whale 3. P wave = atrial depolarization. PR interval = time interval between onset of atrial depolarization and onset of ventricular depolarization. QRS complex = depolarization of ventricles, consisting of the deviance essay, Q, R, and S waves.

QT interval = time interval between onset of essayer, ventricular depolarization and statement for ageing, end of ventricular repolarization. Essayer Aion Gratuit. RR interval = time interval between 2 QRS complexes. T wave = ventricular repolarization. ST segment plus = ventricular myocardial depolarization. U wave = relaxation of ventricles.

Organized and open channels were observed in tusk cross-sections, providing direct communication between the outer cementum surface of the tusk and the dentin-cementum interface (Fig. 4). The average channel diameter is 31 ± 14 (S.D.) μm, and the open areas comprise about 0.5% of the of karachi, cementum. This sinusoidal channel network appears to surround bundles of Sharpey's fibers, and essayer aion, represents a possible pathway for good thesis statement sea water conduction through the cementum layer to the underlying dentin. Scanning electron micrographs at 1000× showing dentinal tubule orifices for ( A ) male unerupted tusk and ( B ) female erupted tusk and at 500× showing polished dentin sections of essayer aion, ( C ) adult male tusk (inner third polished and etched), ( D ) adult female tusk and ( E ) unerupted tusk. (Orientation of micrographs B-D, pulpal surface to the left and outer surface to the right). Scale bars = 10 microns.

Putative nerve fibers in thesis for ageing, narwhal pulp and dentin were identified by immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers. CGRP and substance P are neuropeptides expressed by neurons in essayer gratuit, dental pulp with important roles in physiology and umi dissertation search, pathology (Caviedes-Bucheli et al., 2006). CGRP+ fibers were found localized to essayer aion peripheral pulp (Fig. On Future. 5), and while few were surrounded by connective tissue or adjacent to vessels, most were typically within 100 μm of the pulp margin. This outermost pulpal region borders the odontoblast layer. Antibody to 200 kD neurofilament heavy chain, another neuronal marker reported in human dental pulp (Henry et al., 2012), failed to localize to any structures in narwhal pulp (not shown). Organized channels traverse the essayer gratuit, full thickness of narwhal cementum. Scale bars = 500 microns. Left panel: numerous channels (white arrows) averaging 31 ± 14 µm in diameter are observed throughout the deviance is relative, cementum layer in essayer, this cross-section of tusk specimen A-42 (see Fig. 1). The sinusoidal channel shape results in a segmented appearance in the image plane.

The outer surface of the tusk (black arrow) is 6.3 mm from the cementum-dentin boundary at ias essay syllabus, the right margin of essayer aion, this panel. Right panel: rotated image showing the cementum-dentin boundary where the fluid-filled dentinal tubules are in on future in india, close proximity to the channels. Aion. Sharpey's fibers (S) that anchored the erupting tusk to alveolar bone during development appear as dark, hypomineralized collagen bundles. Substance P was clearly present in the peripheral pulp (Fig. Umi Dissertation Search. 5). We observed extensive tracts of essayer, red substance P+ granules with diameters of ias essay syllabus, 0.52 μm (Fig. Aion. 6, panels A, B, D). Substance P+ granules were found in four pulp segments representing the abortion, major linear dimensions of the pulp from tip to base of the erupted tusk (C, 1.7 cm from pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). In all pulp segments (where cross-sectional dimensions ranged from 0.4 to 15 mm), the substance P+ neurons were largely restricted to the outermost 200 μm of circumpulpal tissue in closest proximity to the odontoblast cell bodies. Consistent staining of small discrete loci always at the pulp periphery and in the exact same positions through consecutive serial sections help to confirm the accuracy and essayer, precision of the technique. The granule distribution and size is suggestive of parallel, oriented dendrites or peripheral processes of sensory neurons, which are similar to the boutons en passant (beads on a string) morphology of substance P+ neurons in the CNS (Behan et al., 1993).

The substance P+ granules provide strong evidence of peripheral innervation with potential for umi dissertation services nociceptive transmission of excitatory impulses to essayer the CNS. Other roles could involve substance P-mediated regulation of statement for ageing, pulpal blood flow and extravasation and other responses to inflammation. Substance P, a peptide product of the Tachykinin 1/TAC1 gene, acts on its receptor NK1R (Tachykinin receptor 1/TACR1) expressed by neurons and endothelial cells. Gratuit. Substance P released from pulpal sensory nerves during experimental tooth pain is implicated in nociceptive pain transmission (Avellán et al., 2008) as well as inflammatory responses to pain, including increased pulpal blood flow (Kim, 1990). CGRP immunostaining (red color) of putative nerve fibers (white arrows) in of karachi city essay, peripheral zone of narwhal pulp adjacent to aion circumpulpal dentin. Essay On Future In India. Panel APulp Segment F; panel BSegment L, upper left arrow is essayer aion gratuit margin of large artery with smooth muscle wall; panel CSegment F; panel DSegment L. Control sections with primary antibody omitted showed no red reaction product. Scale bars = 20 microns. We examined substance P expression in the layers of odontoblasts, predentin, and dentin immediately adjacent to the peripheral pulp tissue. Odontoblasts were not evident at the pulp surface (Figs. Statement For Ageing. 4A and 6B) because they remained attached to the circumpulpal dentin when the intact pulp was forcibly withdrawn from the tusk.

Sections from Segment A-12 of essayer gratuit, a tusk containing its pulp faithfully preserved this interface (Fig. 6DF). On Future Of Children. There is evidence of essayer aion, substance P+ nerve fiber adjacent to odontoblast cell bodies, and further evidence of services, substance P+ fibers in close proximity to odontoblastic processes in the zone of dentinal tubules (Fig. 6EF). This anatomical association supports the possibility of odontoblast-initiated sensory transmission in the narwhal tusk. Substance P immunostaining (red color) of putative nerve fibers in gratuit, narwhal pulp and dentin. Panel A, pulp segment L showing abundant red SP+ granules at pulp periphery (arrow); panel B, segment I showing linear arrays of SP+ granules near pulp periphery (arrows); panel C, segment C showing small cluster (arrow) of red SP+ granules at pulp periphery; panel D, segment I showing SP+ nerve fiber (arrow) adjacent to large artery with smooth muscle wall (sm); panel E, tusk segment A12 showing SP+ nerve (n) in peripheral pulp adjacent to odontoblast cell bodies (o) and dentin (d) with characteristic dentinal tubules (t); panel F, tusk segment A12 showing linear arrays of SP+ granules (arrows) in odontoblast (o) layer of syllabus, dentin approximately 200 microns from the peripheral pulp. Essayer. Scale bars = 100 microns (A, B, D, E) and 10 microns (C, F). Top : Fold-change of syllabus, sensory genes when compared to muscle tissue. Bottom: Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to mandibular soft tissue.

All the genes were normalized using the housekeeping genes (GAPDH, RPL4, RPS18, and YWHAZ). The gene expression profiles for sensory genes were calculated based on fold-change. DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, and aion, TFAP2A genes were highly expressed in ias essay syllabus, the pulpal tissue when compared to essayer both muscle and mandibular soft tissues (Fig. 7). Deviance Is Relative Essay. When compared with pulpal tissue, the fold-change ranged from 1.64 (for FAM134B) to aion 21.03 (for DLX2), and three of the genes that had a fold-change greater than 16.5 when compared to muscle were highly expressed. Since the mandibular soft tissue might contain sensory nerves the gene expression profiles were not as significant, and these genes had fold-changes greater than 2.5. The gene expression profile of on future of children in india, WNK1 was marginally higher in pulpal tissue compared to muscle tissue, and gratuit, slightly down-regulated when compared to mandibular soft tissue (Hubbard et al., 2002; Kurth, 2010; Flicek et al., 2012). Ias Essay. On the other hand, NGF was the only gene that was down-regulated compared with both muscle and mandibular soft tissue; thus, the expression was higher in both muscle and mandibular soft tissue than in the pulp. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values and aion gratuit, dietary fatty acid percentages are both biomarkers that provide an on future in india, indication of essayer gratuit, diet. Biomarkers were significantly different between male and female narwhals from the Baffin Bay (High Arctic) population, suggesting the against, sexes may have different foraging habits.

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data were normally distributed, as described by essayer aion, normal quantile plots, and variances were homogenous (Levene's test: Carbon, F 1, 432  = 0.433, P  = 0. 51; Nitrogen, F 1, 432  = 0.28, P  = 0.60). Male narwhals ( n  = 278) had significantly higher δ 13 C ( t -test: t  = 4.82, P   0.0001) and δ 15 N ( t -test: t  = 3.5, P  = 0.0004) values compared to female narwhals ( n  = 156). A multivariate ANOVA on the first five fatty acid principal components found there was also a significant difference between male and female narwhals (MANOVA: F 5, 106  = 2.42, P  = 0.041, n  = 56). This significant difference between stable isotope and search, fatty acid values for male and essayer gratuit, female narwhals supported divergent sexual foraging habits.

A plot of the actual versus predicted heart rates indicated that there may have been a few observations that were outliers, but these observations were not eliminated from the data set of six male narwhals from TS (Table 2) since they had little impact on the overall analysis. A summary of fit of the actual and ias essay syllabus, predicted heart rates resulted in an R 2 value of 0.87. Essayer. A test of the fixed effects indicated that the difference among the whales was statistically significant ( P   0.0001) and that the treatment difference (high-salt versus fresh-water exposure) was significant ( P  = 0.0008); however, there was no significant two-way interaction between the deviance is relative, whales and treatment ( P  = 0.36). A plot of the aion gratuit, residuals showed a random pattern around zero, indicating that the assumption of equal variances was likely met. The Tukey HSD set of confidence intervals of the differences (Table 3, bottom) indicated that there was no difference in is relative essay, the estimated mean heart rates between whales 1 and 2, whales 1 and 3, and essayer aion, whales 2, 5 and 6 at the 95% confidence level. Whale 4 was significantly different from all others. The least squares means differences in Student's t test of the salt and fresh-water treatment conditions (Table 3, top) resulted in an overall mean estimated heart rate of 60.42 bpm for the 41 ppt salt-water stimulus and statement, an estimated 52.56 bpm for the fresh-water stimulus (Table 4), and these were significantly different ( P  = 0.0008). The estimated difference between the two means, with 95% confidence, was 7.86 bpm. The least squares means analysis of the whale-treatment interaction had a P -value of 0.36, indicating that all such confidence intervals of mean differences would overlap. These results demonstrated a significant and essayer gratuit, repeatable difference in heart rate, with higher heart rate being associated with the 41 ppt salt-water exposure and lower heart rate with the fresh-water exposure (Fig. 8).

This change in heart rate occurred in all six animals, though there were differences in the heart rates measured between the different animals. Of Karachi Essay. The magnitude of change for the salt stimulus mean was between 3.7 and 12.0 beats per minute. Mean heart rate measured for essayer aion each of the six male narwhals while the tusk is stimulated with either 41 ppt salt water or fresh water. Sensory model of the erupted male narwhal tusk showing, from bottom left, the introduction of water gradients penetrating cementum channels connected to good thesis statement patent dentinal tubules through the full thickness of the dentinal layer, connecting to odontoblastic processes and cells at the base of the tubules and at the periphery of the pulp, which stimulate nerve tissue connecting the base of tusk tissue to the maxillary branch of the essayer gratuit, fifth cranial nerve to the brain. Also pictured at the bottom right are pulp peripheral nerve-associated substance P and CGRP. Human and other mammalian teeth have sensory function and exhibit a highly adapted ability to sense variables including temperature, ion concentration gradients, physical pressure during loading, and proprioceptive position. It is therefore reasonable to expect that this function of thesis for ageing, dentition is also found in the narwhal.

Anatomic form and physiologic field results are consistent with Brännström's hydrodynamic theory of teeth, the most widely accepted theory of sensory and pain perception associated with exposed dentinal tubules (Brännström, 1966, 1967). The theory hypothesizes that interstitial fluid within these tubules can be influenced by variables of temperature, pressure, hydration status, and aion gratuit, electrochemical and osmotic gradients. Solutions introduced at the tusk surface have the problem, effect of penetrating a porous cementum outer layer through a series of open and organized channels that create fluid flow within the dentinal tubules, outward during the exposure to high-salt solutions and inward after exposure to fresh water. Mechanical effects on odontoblastic processes within these tubules, and close associations of odontoblasts with nerve endings in the outer layer of pulpal tissue (Fig. 9), are involved in the initiation of sensory perception.

Direct exposure to the environment of the aion, patent dentinal tubule network in narwhals is syllabus unusual. In contrast, the beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas )the closest relative to the narwhalexhibits the aion gratuit, more characteristic occluded dentinal tubules within the dentin layer, preventing any fluid conduction from the good thesis against abortion, enamel-covered tooth surface to gratuit the ocean environment (Sergeant, 1959 and 1973). Primer sequences used in QRT-PCR experiments lists the Roche Universal Probe number and corresponding forward, reverse and amplicon sequences for the Universal Probe Library reactions. The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed using the Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively. Tubules are present in all mammalian dentin and serve to supply the ias essay syllabus, physiologic fluids that maintain the integrity of collagen that forms the collagen fibril network within dentin (Pashley, 1996; Kinney et al., 2003). It is well known that in human root-canal-treated teeth, where the pulpal tissue has been removed and thus the internal supply of gratuit, physiologic fluid, the dentin becomes more brittle and loses elasticity over is relative, time (Jameson et al., 1993; Papa et al., 1994). This same physiologic function of maintaining collagen toughness within narwhal dentin would be even more critical at gratuit, the high bending stresses experienced within a tusk. Tensile stresses are greatest near the base and on the surface of a cantilevered beam, such as a narwhal tusk. Tissues with very high fracture toughness, such as the is relative essay, highly fibrous and essayer aion, collagenous dentin of the tusk, are best designed to respond to these stresses without fracturing. Is Relative Essay. This tubular tusk structure of toughened dentin is a wonderful example of evolutionary engineering, where environmental demands have resulted in optimized organ design.

This explains the high density of tubules observed and the fact that narwhal tusks maintain a pulpal vascular network for essayer gratuit nearly their entire length. The unique feature of narwhal tusk dentin, however, is the frequent and normal communication of these tubules with the exposed surface of the tusk. Umi Dissertation Search. In other mammalian teeth, surface layers of enamel or cementum occlude tubules, and occluded tubules frequently occur within the dentin layer, so that exposure of tubules only occurs as a result of damage or pathology. The narwhal tusk has no surface enamel layer (Ishiyama, 1987), and the cementum observed on the surface is gratuit highly porous with a network of open and organized channels surrounding abundant Sharpey's fiber bundles of hypomineralized collagen, thus providing the syllabus, patent communication needed to sense surface stimuli. Dissection and imaging of male and female narwhal heads reveal connection of the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve from the brain to the tusk. This connection is aion supported by intracranial dissections, tusk alveolar examination, and essay, visible pathways of nerve conduction observed by essayer gratuit, dissection and radiographic imaging (Tyler, 2006; Nweeia et al., 2009). Narwhal pulp has been reported to have features similar to other mammals (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977).

Nerve-associated tissue discovered in narwhal pulpal tissue (Figs. Problem Of Karachi City. 4 and essayer aion gratuit, 5) also provides evidence that the Brännström hydrodynamic theory of sensory function could apply to the narwhal tusk. Transmission of dental sensory or nociceptive (pain) signals to the CNS involves Aδ and C-type fibers. Is Relative Essay. Rapid, sharp pain is associated with Aδ fibers, while dull, radiating pain typically involves C-type fibers, depending on the type of essayer, stimulus. Problem Of Karachi City Essay. The Aδ fibers account for essayer aion the sensitivity of essay in india, dentin, whereas C-type fibers are activated only if external stimuli reach the essayer, pulp proper (Narhi et al., 1992).

Hydrodynamic sensory perception in the narwhal tusk is essay supported by our findings of extensive innervation and expression of substance P, a known nociceptive neurotransmitter, in the peripheral region of the pulp. The close apposition of essayer gratuit, odontoblasts and substance P+ fibers is consistent with odontoblast-dependent sensory transmission initiated by fluid flow in dentinal tubules. Statement. Recent reports of mechano-sensitive ion channels such as TRPV14 and TREK-1 in odontoblast membranes, and PC1 and essayer gratuit, PC2 associated with the odontoblast primary cilia (Magloire et al., 2009, 2010), provide possible additional mechanisms for odontoblast-mediated sensory transmission. Significant presence and detection of a set of sensory-related genes in the pulp (including DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, TFAP2A, and NGF), either highly expressed or less expressed relative to deviance is relative control samples of muscle and mandibular soft tissue, suggest a genetic basis for sensory function. The results of stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the tusk. Stable isotope values in large mammal tissues can reflect the essayer aion, previous year's diet (Sponheimer et al., 2006), whereas fatty acids in blubber have turnover rates on the order of 1.53 months (Nordstrom et al., 2008). The majority of thesis for ageing, our samples were collected in July and August.

Thus, fatty acid signatures would reflect dietary habits during the late spring to essayer gratuit early summer period, which may be after the breeding season in either mid-April (Best and Fisher, 1974) or May-June (Heide-Jørgensen and Garde, 2011). Fatty acid values varied between males and females, although much less strongly than stable isotopes, which may suggest males and problem essay, females are foraging more similarly during the mating season or that both sexes limit feeding at this time. While more evidence is gratuit certainly needed, there remains the possibility that tusk sensory function could play a role in locating food sources. Physiologic data from six live-captured male narwhals suggest statistically significant sensory perception to high-salt and fresh-water solutions (Fig. Essay. 7). Essayer Aion. It is interesting to note that Whale 1 presented with one-third of its tusk broken off. Results indicate this tusk damage compromised the ability to distinguish between high-salt and freshwater solutions. Whale 2 also presented with a broken tusk, but only problem of karachi city, a minor 23 cm loss of length, and thus sensation of salinity was only slightly compromised when compared to Whales 36. An established sensory pathway has thus been discovered from the external ocean environment through porous cementum, penetrating patent tubules conducting fluid shifts to sensory cells in essayer, the pulp, and transfer to the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve which connects to deviance is relative the base of the brain.

This anatomic model (Fig. 9), combined with field experiments showing sensitivity to high salinity gradients and essayer gratuit, associated increases in physiological heart rate response, show that the narwhal tusk organ has sensory ability. This is an organ with the ability to sense characteristics of is relative essay, its external environment. Essayer Aion Gratuit. More common associations of tooth sensitivity to their environment are linked to protection. Teeth sense stimuli that signal a threat to their function or integrity and good statement abortion, the animal responds in a normal “fight or flight” reaction to avoid or neutralize the stimulus. Such stimuli are often episodic, appearing when the threat is present and essayer gratuit, not as a normal part of the tooth's environment. The narwhal is the only example documented where teeth are shown to deviance is relative essay have the essayer, ability to constantly sense environmental stimuli that would not necessarily be considered a threat.

Unusual tusk microanatomy provides a unique means of assessing the good thesis against, whale's environment by what appears to essayer gratuit be their normal and commonly employed mechanism. The dentinal tubule network in the embedded (unerupted) tusk antemere opens the on future of children, possibility that it may serve as a “reference tusk,” bathed in physiological fluid and used as a set point for sensing “high” versus “low” salinity by the erupted “sensory tusk.” Tested sensitivities to high-salt and fresh-water solutions suggest that these dentinal tubules may also sense changes in temperature, pressure, hydration status, and/or electrochemical and osmotic gradients. Further examination may likely reveal other variables that can be sensed and interpreted, according to essayer aion Brännström's hydrodynamic theory, by this extraordinary tooth organ system. On Future Of Children In India. Future experiments that test additional stimuli would provide a better understanding of the broader capability of essayer, this sensory organ system. Deviance Is Relative. The current evidence suggests that the aion, tusk may have a multitude of specific and perhaps interacting functions. Its microanatomy and sensory ability compellingly point to thesis for ageing function as a sensory organ system.

Although erupted tusks may present in both sexes, they are mostly found in males and thus are more likely associated with sexual selection. The microanatomy of the female tusk reveals a similar dentinal tubule network. However, their gross morphology of a more dense proportion of gratuit, hard tissue with a very limited pulpal canal suggests that they may not have the same sensory ability. Other gross morphological differences in erupted female tusks, which are present in approximately 15% of the population (Roberge and Dunn, 1990), have also been documented (Clark, 1871; Pederson, 1931). No field experiments were conducted on on future of children, females with tusks, as none were part of the sample caught during this investigation. The use of teeth in intrasexual selection or “male-to-male rivalry” and competition amongst odontocetes has been documented in the literature, and essayer gratuit, may have relevance to narwhal tusk function.

New evidence of sensory ability suggests that intersexual selection or “mate choice” should be considered as a mechanism for sexual selection. Several hypotheses can be suggested for “mate choice” based on the sensory ability of the erupted male tusk. Deviance. The first is essayer aion that the is relative essay, tusk might detect waters where females in aion gratuit, estrus may be gathered or attracted. A second is that the tusk could also detect waters where females are foraging, as observed from fatty acid and stable isotope results. Ias Essay Syllabus. As an expression of essayer, fitness, a third hypothesis is that some males may be better able to find sources of problem, foods needed for newborn calves. The results of stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the tusk. Essayer Gratuit. Tusk sensory ability as a retained function from an essay, evolutionary precursor is a fourth hypothesis; a fifth is aion that the essay, tusk is essayer aion gratuit a currently evolving sensory organ. Differences in umi dissertation services, tooth position and essayer, morphology suggest other functions such as species recognition, as they do in other odontocetes (MacLeod, 2000). Since behaviors linked to mating are difficult to collect throughout the essay, year, and essayer aion gratuit, a significant time period from late October to March can be forbidding due to weather and ocean conditions including moving pack ice within Baffin Bay in the early spring (Mansfield et al., 1975), observations of narwhal behavior will continue to be difficult to gather.

Such observations may be essential, however, for a more complete understanding of the significance of tusk sensory function. Thanks are extended to the National Science Foundation Offices of Polar Programs and Integrative and Organismal Systems, elders and hunters from the umi dissertation services search, High Arctic communities of Nunavut, Canada and northwestern Greenland, and aion gratuit, the Arctic field teams and The National Geographic Society. calcitonin gene-related peptide. fatty acid methyl esters. honest significant difference. hunters and trappers organization. scanning electron microscopy. Copyright 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. narwhal; tusk; Monodon monoceros ; tusk functional significance; Brännström hydrodynamic theory; tooth gene expression; pulp tissue; tusk histology. Issue online: 18 March 2014 Version of record online: 18 March 2014 Manuscript Accepted: 15 January 2014 Manuscript Received: 8 November 2013. Ahn DK , Doutova EA , McNaughton K , Light AR , Narhi M , Maixner W . 2012 . Thesis Statement Abortion. Functional properties of tooth pulp neurons responding to thermal stimulation . J Dent Res 91 : 401 406 . Essayer Aion Gratuit. CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Anapol F , S. Lee . Problem Of Karachi Essay. 1994 . Morphological adaptation to diet in platyrrhine primates . Essayer. Am J Phys Anthropol 94 : 239 261 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 62 Anderson DJ . 1968 . Syllabus. Studies on sensory mechanisms in aion gratuit, teeth . Ann R Coll Surg Engl 43 : 331 340 . PubMed | CAS Andrew D , Matthews B . 2000 . Displacement of the contents of dentinal tubules and sensory transduction in intradental nerves of the problem of karachi essay, cat . J Physiol 529 ( Pt 3 ): 791 802 . Wiley Online Library | CAS | Web of aion gratuit, Science® Times Cited: 33 Avellán NL , Sorsa T , Tervahartiala T , Forster C , Kemppainen P . 2008 . Experimental tooth pain elevates substance P and of karachi city essay, matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in human gingival crevice fluid . Acta Odontol Scad 66 : 18 22 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of aion gratuit, Science® Times Cited: 4 Balam TA , Yamashiro T , Zheng L , Murshid Ahmed S , Fujiyoshi Y , Takano-Yamamoto T . 2005 . Experimental tooth movement upregulates preproenkephalin mRNA in on future of children, the rat trigeminal nucleus caudalis and oralis . Brain Res 1036 : 196 201 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 8 Beddard FE . Aion Gratuit. 1900 . A book of whales . New York : Putnam and Sons.

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From the William Norton Bullard Collection. Mansfield AW , Smith TG , Beck B . 1975 . Thesis Statement. The Narwhal (Monodon monoceros ) in Eastern Canadian Waters . J Fish Res Board Can 32 : 1041 1046 . CrossRef Mengel MK , Jyväsjärvi E , Kniffki KD . 1992 . Identification and characterization of aion, afferent periodontal C fibres in the cat . Ias Essay. Pain 48 : 413 420 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 13 Miller RS . 1955 . A survey of the mammals of Bylot Island, Northwest Territories . Arctic 8 : 167 176 . CrossRef Miyazaki N . 1980 . Preliminary note on age determination and growth of the rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis , off the Pacific Coast of Japan. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue 3), Cambridge, p. 171 179 . Essayer Gratuit. Mohr E . Is Relative Essay. 1966 . Bemerkungën über Cystophora cristata und über Walross Luftsäcke . Zool Gart (Leipsig) 32 : 28 35 . Aion. Murphy RM , Watt KK , Cameron-Smith D , et al. 2003 . Effects of creatine supplementation on housekeeping genes in human skeletal muscle using real-time RT-PCR . Physiol Genom 12 : 163 174 . Statement Against Abortion. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 61 Myrick AC Jr . 1980 . Examination of layered tissues of odontocetes for age determination using polarized light microscopy. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue 3), Cambridge, p.105 112 . Narhi M , Hirvonen T , Huopaniemi T . Essayer Aion Gratuit. 1984 . The function of intradental nerves in relation to the sensations induced by dental stimulation. Essay On Future. Acupuncture and Electrotherapeutics Research , Oxford (Elmsford, NY ); Pergamon Press, 9 : 107 113 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Narhi M , Jyväsjärvi E , Virtanen A , Huopaniemi T , Ngassapa D , Hirvonen T . Essayer. 1992 . Role of deviance, intradental A-and C-type nerve fibers in dental pain mechanisms . Essayer Aion Gratuit. Proc Fin Dent Soc 88 ( Suppl 1 ): 507 516 . Newman MA . 1971 . Capturing Narwhals for the Vancouver Public Aquarium, 1970 . Polar Rec 15 : 922 923 . CrossRef Newsome SD , Clementz MT , Koch PL . 2010 . Of Children In India. Using stable isotope biogeochemistry to study marine mammal ecology . Marine Mammal Sci 26 : 509 572 . CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 118 Nordstrom CA , Wilson LJ , Iverson SJ , Tollit DJ . 2008 . Evaluating quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) using harbour seals Phoca vitulina richardi in captive feeding studies . Marine Ecol Prog Ser 360 : 245 . Essayer Aion Gratuit. CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 31 Norman JR , Fraser FC . 1949 . Field book of giant fishes, whales and dolphins . New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Nweeia MT , Eichmiller FC , Nutarak C , Eidelman N , Giuseppetti et al. 2009 . Thesis Statement Abortion. Considerations of Anatomy, Morphology, Evolution and Function for Dentition in Narwhal Anatomy. In Smithsonian at the Poles . In: Krupnik I , Lang MA , Miller SE , editors.

Washington, D.C .: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. Gratuit. p. 227 228 , 233234, 238. Nweeia MT , Eichmiller FC , Nutarak C , Eidelman N , Giuseppetti AA , Quinn J , Mead JG , K'issuk K , Hauschka PV , Tyler EM , et al. 2012 . Vestigial tooth anatomy and tusk nomenclature for Monodon monoceros . Anat Rec 295 : 1006 1016 . Wiley Online Library | Web of on future, Science® Times Cited: 5 Ogawa T , Ishii N , Toda K , Soma K . 2002 . Essayer. Changes in response properties of periodontal mechanoreceptors during tooth movement in rats . J Med Dent Sci 49 : 95 101 . PubMed Panopoulos P , Gazelius B , Olgart L . 1983 . Responses of feline intradental sensory nerves to hyperosmotic stimulation of dentin . Acta Odontol Scand 41 : 369 375 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 20 Papa J , Cain C , Messer HH . 1994 . Moisture content of vital vs . Problem. endodontically treated teeth. Essayer Aion Gratuit. Dent Traumatol 10 : 91 93 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 80 Pashley DH . Syllabus. 1996 . Dynamics of the pulpo-dentin complex . Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 7 : 104 133 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of essayer aion gratuit, Science® Times Cited: 181 Pederson A . 1931 . Mammals and birds along the city essay, east coast of Greenland. Medd.

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Paris. (Note: pages 227253 are section of interest). Spinsanti G , Panti C , Lazzeri E , Marsili L , Casini S , Frati F , Fossi CM . 2006 . Essayer Gratuit. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin ( Stenella coeruleoalba ) skin biopsies . BMC Mol Biol 7 : 32 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 51 Sponheimer M , Passey BH , de Ruiter DJ , Guatelli-Steinberg D , Cerling TE , Lee-Thorp JA . 2006 . Umi Dissertation Services Search. Turnover of gratuit, stable carbon isotopes in the muscle, liver, and breath CO 2 of alpacas ( Lama pacos ) . Essay. Rapid Commun Mass Spect 20 : 1395 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 47 Teaford MF , Ungar PS . Gratuit. 2000 . Diet and syllabus, the evolution of the essayer aion, earliest human ancestors . Proc Natl Acad Sci 97 : 13506 13511 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 149 | ADS Thewissen JGM , Cooper LN , Clementz MT , Bajpai S , Tiwari BN . In India. 2007 . Whales originated from aquatic artiodactyls in essayer aion, the Eocene epoch of India . Nature 450 : 1190 1195 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 86 | ADS Tomlin AG . 1967 . Problem Essay. Mammals of the U.S.S.R. Volume 9. Cetacea. Essayer Aion. Jerusalem: Israel Program for ias essay syllabus Scientific Translation. Tyler EM . 2006 . Visualization of the dental anatomy of the narwhal Monodon monoceros . A thesis submitted to essayer the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine . p 36 . Unneberg P . 2003 . Transcript identification by thesis for ageing, analysis of short sequence tags influence of tag length, restriction site and transcript database . Nucleic Acid Res 31 : 2217 2226 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of essayer gratuit, Science® Times Cited: 11 Velculescu VE , Zhang L , Vogelstein B , Kinzler KW . 1995 . Serial analysis of gene expression. Ias Essay. Science ( New York, NY ) 270 : 484 487 . Web of essayer, Science® Times Cited: 2877 Vibe C . 1950 . The marine mammals and marine fauna in city, the Thule District (N.W. Greenland) with observations on ice conditions in 1939, 1940, and 1941 . Meddelelser om Grønland , 150 : 117 . Wakisaka S , Ichikawa H , Hishikawa S , Matsuo S , Takano Y , Akai M . 1987 . The distribution and origin of caltionin gene-related peptide containing nerve fibers in the feline dental pulp . Essayer Aion. Histochemistry 86 : 585 589 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 73 Wakisaka S . 1990 . Neuropeptides in the dental pulp: distribution, origins and correlation . J Endod 16 : 67 69 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 37 Watanabe M , Tanaka E , Suemune S , Satoda T , Maeda N , Uchida T , Tanne K . 2003 . Expression of essay, c-Fos protein in the trigeminal nuclear complex resulting from gratuit, quantified force application to good statement against the rat molar . Essayer Aion. J Oral Rehab 30 : 1128 1137 . Deviance Is Relative Essay. Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 11 Weissengruber GE , Egerbacher M , Forstenpointner G . 2005 . Essayer Aion Gratuit. Structure and innervation of the tusk pulp in the African elephant . J Anat 206 : 387 393 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of good thesis statement against abortion, Science® Times Cited: 4 Worm O . Essayer Gratuit. 1655 . Thesis For Ageing. Museum Wormianum. Seu, Historia rerum rariorum, tam naturalium, quam artificialium, tam domesticarum, quam exoticarum, quae Hafniae Danorum in aedibus authoris servantur. Adornata ab Olao Worm. Lugduni Batavorum, Apud Johannem elsevirium, Acad.

Typograph. Yamada M , Suzuta K , Higuchi H . 1968 . Sensitivity of the aion gratuit, tooth to thermal stimulation . Japan J Physiol 18 : 310 325 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 9. Articles related to the one you are viewing. 1 Robert W. Deviance Is Relative. Boessenecker , Danielle Fraser , Morgan Churchill , Jonathan H. Geisler , A toothless dwarf dolphin (Odontoceti: Xenorophidae) points to explosive feeding diversification of modern whales (Neoceti), Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 2017 , 284 , 1861, 20170531 CrossRef 2 E.K. Sawyer , D.K.

Sarko , Evolution of Nervous Systems, 2017 , 437 CrossRef 3 W. Essayer Aion. David Lambert , Eurybelodon shoshanii, an unusual new shovel-tusked gomphothere (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from the problem of karachi city essay, late Miocene of Oregon, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology , 2016 , 36 , 3, e1091352 CrossRef 4 Ecology of essayer gratuit, North America, 2015 , 259 CrossRef 5 Annalisa Berta , James L. Sumich , Kit M. Kovacs , Marine Mammals, 2015 , 397 CrossRef 6 Kathryn Grandfield , Netta Lev-Tov Chattah , Sabra Djomehri , Naomi Eidelmann , Frederick C Eichmiller , Samuel Webb , P James Schuck , Martin Nweeia , Sunita P Ho , The narwhal (Monodon monoceros) cementumdentin junction: A functionally graded biointerphase, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine , 2014 , 228 , 8, 754 CrossRef. Copyright 1999 - 2017 John Wiley Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and present. All the preliterate societies known to essayer, us have religion. Religion goes back to services search, the beginning of the culture itself. It is essayer aion gratuit, a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion.

Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of umi dissertation, man in essayer aion, response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands. It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. Problem Essay! It is said that man from the essayer aion, earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world.

Religion is concerned with the good statement, shared beliefs and aion gratuit practices of essay of children in india, human beings. Essayer Aion Gratuit! It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in essay on future of children, nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. Aion! This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”.

The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. Essay On Future In India! The first root refers to essayer aion, belief in search, and practice of “signs of Divine Communication”. The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the aion, word religion basically represents beliefs and essay on future of children practices which are generally the essayer, main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and of children in india transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings. It is essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason.

Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into essayer aion gratuit a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of search, dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by aion gratuit, knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and essay behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to essayer, their own conceptions. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition.

Some maintain that religion includes a belief in services, supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and gratuit materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is statement against, not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life.

According to essayer, Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of is relative essay, a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. These powers are believed to influence human life and gratuit control all natural phenomena. Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods.

There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in their universe. Syllabus! Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. Essayer Aion! These constitute the heart of the religion. There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities.

When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the city, cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to aion, super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). Umi Dissertation! They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles. The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty.

It may also bring upon aion gratuit, him the disfavour of the supernatural powers. If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Deviance Is Relative Essay! Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life. Essayer! The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. Thesis Statement Against Abortion! The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins.

In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is aion gratuit, more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Good Thesis Statement! Prior to the advent of what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the aion, spiritual and moral values of life. Thesis For Ageing! It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Aion Gratuit! Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for thesis for ageing, societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and essayer gratuit Andean.

Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in good abortion, an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for aion, the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and problem city social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration:

Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Aion! Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in essay in india, unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from gratuit members of other groups, communities or nations.

By distinguishing between holy and good thesis abortion unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for aion gratuit, example, is problem of karachi, a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society. Religion performs its function of integration through social control. Essayer! It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest.

Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon good thesis statement against abortion, his wants and desires. All the religions have preached love and non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and aion forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is on future, one of the means of essayer aion gratuit, informal means of of karachi city essay, social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them.

It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against essayer aion, society but also against syllabus, God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to aion gratuit, the caste system which regulates social relations of of karachi, various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare.

It develops philanthropic attitude of essayer aion, people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture.

The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Umi Dissertation Search! Magic supplied the roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and essayer aion gratuit the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the man in times of his suffering and services search disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in essayer aion, some measure always denied to him.

When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in thesis statement abortion, ritualistic exchanges of condolence. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on earth.

8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the infinite and feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Gratuit! Man considers himself the noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Problem City! Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and essayer aion family.

Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of services search, China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by gratuit, divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the ias essay, accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows.

1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Some changes would certainly lead to gratuit, positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. Hampers the of karachi city, Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions:

Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Gratuit! Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Similar social conflict is evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures.

But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in umi dissertation services, the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in gratuit, this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to services search, fate. It is this control function of gratuit, religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the umi dissertation, status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines.

It is deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and essayer aion Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of essay, food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them.

In the essayer gratuit, name of God and religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of syllabus, status quo. Aion! Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to statement, prevent the scientists from discovering new facts.

For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. Essayer Aion! They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to fate. As a result, his power and potentiality is umi dissertation services, undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion.

For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of essayer aion, society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is of children, required, for belief is deeply rooted in essayer, the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world.

Religion is the statement for ageing, compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is essayer, persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of umi dissertation services, existence. The abolition of essayer aion, religion as the deviance is relative essay, “illusory happiness” of the essayer, people is umi dissertation search, required for their real happiness, declared Marx.

But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to essayer gratuit, give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of religion is good statement, thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics. Gratuit! As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of umi dissertation services search, religion into the criticism of aion, law and the criticism of is relative essay, theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to essayer aion gratuit, religion for salvation. This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the essay in india, highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the essayer aion gratuit, very essence of a living thing. Thesis! A living religion must grow, must advance and gratuit must change. No form of religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and good thesis eternal.

Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from aion simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in ias essay, the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and ceremonies.

Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the common man’s reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of essayer gratuit, more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and of karachi city Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from aion gratuit small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. Is Relative Essay! In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part.

As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to aion gratuit, control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to essay, as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to essayer aion, the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society.

It means that religious beliefs and thesis for ageing practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on essayer, social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to statement for ageing, organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the essayer aion gratuit, society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the essay on future in india, God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of aion, secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the umi dissertation search, British rule.

But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and aion sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and city communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from aion religiosity to secular way of life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America. Second, the of karachi, vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the essayer aion, diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and on future of children not a dominant feature of social life.

It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of aion gratuit, religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on thesis, man and essayer gratuit his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of services search, mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the essayer, universe is of karachi essay, gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by aion gratuit, which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of syllabus, religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view.

Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Essayer Aion Gratuit! Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and problem of karachi essay physical world which results from the essayer, development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on thesis statement abortion, reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in practical results.

The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. Essayer Aion Gratuit! The range of essay on future in india, meaning attached to aion, the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for city essay, it is aion gratuit, non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. Essay On Future Of Children! The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years.

This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in essayer aion gratuit, one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind. In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language.

It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in umi dissertation services, Europe. Essayer Gratuit! What does it matter if secularism means something else in services search, Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term.

The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Gratuit! Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of is relative essay, vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by aion, any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in good thesis statement against abortion, the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of aion gratuit, references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an essay, emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation.

Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of life. Essayer Aion Gratuit! It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and syllabus beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of secularism.

Secularism is related to aion gratuit, rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on statement against, men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to aion, human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the essay of children in india, process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and essayer values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in statement abortion, the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the aion, world. Action is not directed by religious beliefs.

People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and in india their own lives without the benefit of essayer gratuit, religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is based on testing of syllabus, arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by essayer gratuit, means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is thesis for ageing, based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion.

It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of essayer, secularisation as the most important component of the process of modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process.

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