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oil price essay Essay on lubricating oils for BMW motorcycles, engine oils. Clicking on essay them at every visit helps support this website! Clicking on something inside an of a coursework, advertisement helps even more! Understanding how oils REALLY work/operate/function.
IN DEPTH discussion. LUBRICATION THEORY . as you've never heard before! What things you should consider in selecting oils, etc. © Copyright 2007, 2014, 2016, 2017, R. To Write! Fleischer. Preface. The importance of proper engine oil: Most any engine oil will work reasonably well for you structure, the engine, but there are specific areas of the what scholarship essay engine that WILL BE damaged, and perhaps expensively, if the oil is industry, not of proper quality and that means proper additives that are blended by the oil makers. The author's website, http://bmwmotorcycletech.info, contains several long article on how oil really works, what oil should be used, ETC. Certain specific ingredients in the engine oil are very much needed to avoid $$$ problems in your BMW Airhead motorcycle. THREE are critical. One of them is ZDDP (or ZDP).
The amounts have been DEcreased, over time, in scholarship accordance with API, SAE, and industry oil and what to write scholarship essay auto manufacturer's changes. Your Airhead motorcycle REQUIRES this substance in a minimum (and maximum) amount, to thesis plan phd avoid $$ spalling and other deterioration of the camshaft and cam follower surfaces. Another ingredient is needed to be sure that under storage conditions, the cam and followers (and other items in the engine) do not have the to write essay oil dripping off and leaving the metal unprotected at zam zam water in urdu engine startup. What Scholarship! The final ingredient (of major importance) is that the amount of detergents (Increasingly higher in osmosis of a potato modern car oils) should not be excessive, as that defeats BOTH long term storage metal protection AND defeats the protection of ZDDP. There are SEVERAL oil articles on what to write scholarship essay this website. They are generally in the section of how do, articles 49 through 51D. To Write Essay! You really DO need to read them ALL! Additives are put into base stock oils to help form better 'thin oil films', so the oil is thesis plan phd, not pounded-out by impact forces.
Actually, the oil can also be 'moved out' by what scholarship, rotating forces, that make the oil set up like ocean waves. General Psychology Research Ideas! Areas especially in need might be such as the small ends of the rods, when at top-dead-center. What To Write Essay! Very LITTLE engine wear is from osmosis of a, dynamic friction . that is, from rotating, or constantly shearing movements. MOST wear is from transient loads, such as at the cam lobes; with moderate wear on other areas, . To Write Scholarship Essay! during COLD STARTUP; provided that the oil contains proper additives. Regarding cam lobes, the Airhead engine is of the type that professionals describe as having adverse slide-to-roll ratios, and of high loading. These types of engines are common to those of flat-type cam/rocker/follower systems, such as on thesis plan phd the old VW Beetle, the Porsche 356, early Corvette's, even the Ford Pinto. Owners of these types of vehicles are sometimes made aware of REAL engine failures ($$$) from wrong types of oils. To Write Essay! In particular camshaft and lifter wear. Today, modern car engines are so precisely designed and psychology research ideas manufactured, that very light oils with no or limited ZDDP additives can be used (although other additives may be used, that do not interfere with catalytic converters). NOT SO with MANY earler engines. The BMW Airheads are MEDIUM-old technology.
The BMW Classic K bikes (K1, K75, K100, K1100, and to write essay some into K1200) are somewhat more modern. Special notes, regarding modern CAR oils IN CARS! . and comparison with Airheads. 2. Computer Toefl! Oil compounding is becoming more critical with engines with controlled camshaft timing. 3. What Essay! The use of NON-top-tier gasoline causes problems with fuel injectors, and of a potato carbon deposits that can, and will, produce driveability problems that are $$ to fix. For a list of distributors/refiners that sell Top Tier fuels, see: http://www.toptiergas.com/ Click around at the headings at what to write scholarship essay the top. 4. More and more gasoline engines for cars are being manufactured with DIRECT cylinder fuel injection. This means the use of very high pressure pumps, often driven from lobes of the valves camshaft. Oil has become critical for these engines. Further, the a essay gasoline makeup and type of oil is to write essay, MUCH more critical for deposits that affect driveability (surging, bucking, lousy start-up, poor cold running, lousy mileage. and more). It is DIFFICULT on many of these engines to clean-up the deposits. Psychology Research Ideas! Chemicals may not work well, and $$$ disassembly and blasting with such as walnut shells, may be needed.
Removing and replacing a head or two heads for this is what scholarship, NOT CHEAP. Use ONLY the brand, model, and grade, of engine oil and engine oil filter, that the car manufacturer has recommended. DO NOT DEVIATE, even if the zam zam essay oil retailer or container says it meets the specifications by the car manufacturer. If the car manufacturer has nothing about your proposed oil in scholarship essay its APPROVED oil and computer filter literature, PASS on using it. What Scholarship! or, study-up some, and then decide. NOTE that these two additives are NOT in all engine oils, and when they are, the concentrations vary . considerably!
ZDDP (zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphate) is a common anti-wear additive for use in mineral-based oils. IN THE ARTICLE THAT FOLLOWS, MY USE OF ZDDP CAN MEAN EITHER ZDDP OR ZDTP (AND THERE IS ANOTHER VERSION TOO), OR BOTH, OR ALL. Many premium motorcycle oils are produced with large percentages of synthetic components, and may well have quality additives that will last longer than the commonly accepted (and often WRONG!) 3,000 mile change intervals. It depends CONSIDERABLY on the 'quality' and amount of additives, and particularly how the toefl essay motorcycle is ridden . such as very short 3 mile trips in what to write scholarship essay high humidity or cold weather perhaps . versus over 20 mile average trips. Changing your oil too often is also, contrary to general research popular belief, not a great idea. I know that sounds wrong . and the reasons are complex, so I won't get into them here. If you do not believe, me, do some of your own research!
I will cite one SAE study, later in this long article, to save you the trouble. There is also a POSSIBLE problem with the word synthetic. Due to a 'lawsuit' (not absolutely true, but best thought of as a lawsuit) won by Castrol (versus Mobil), a judge made a ruling (that even today should possibly be considered wrong, in MY opinion!). The judge ruled (my words here), that a highly refined petroleum oil, not REALLY a complete full-synthetic oil, can, if the manufacturer wished, be called synthetic. Because of to write, this ruling, so-called part, or even full-synthetic oils, that are on the market may not truly be the highest quality REAL synthetic oils. General Paper! Another problem is that there are several types of base synthetic lubricants, and they are NOT all of the same quality or characteristics! I will get into them later in scholarship essay this article. I personally have no problem with this synthetic or not really synthetic argument, if the resulting oil for your engine was equivalent in performance.
UNfortunately, they are NOT, usually, very close. Another problem is that, except for most of the thesis plan phd specialty motorcycle oil makers (who are better at NOT changing good formulas), commonly available oils can have their formulas modified, without the what to write oil makers telling you. The bottom-line, SIMPLIFIED, about synthetic oil, is that for MOST PRACTICAL purposes, if they contain reasonable amounts of ZDDP or ZDTP (for your AIRHEAD bike or other vehicle that really should have it), they are ALL likely going to be OK and you CAN go further than you may think before needing an oil change. Some will burn off faster at the beginning, and that costs-you; but you will probably overlook this. What you MUST look out for thesis plan phd, is that the oils must be OK for what essay, YOUR particular motorcycle. Oil is much more critical for Airheads, as far as scuffing and thesis plan phd lubrication goes. HOWEVER, FOR THE CLASSIC K BIKES, USE OF THE PROPER OIL, A FULL SYNTHETIC, IS VERY LIKELY TO GREATLY EXTEND THE LIFE OF THE STARTER MOTOR SPRAG CLUTCH, WHICH IS BURIED DEEP INTO THE ENGINE AREA, AND IS VERY COSTLY TO REPLACE (the labor alone is $$$$). Modern car oils are typically energy saving (and so marketed and marked), are usually in to write essay thin grades such as 0W30 and 5W30, . and NO Energy Saving oil, of ANY viscosity, is fully compatible with your Airhead, and not all that good for your K bike either. More information is in my my http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/viscosity.htm article, particularly near the end, where I list ZDDP levels. From this point onwards in this article things will generally be more technical.
Here is what really happens: The fluid (OIL) splits into layers. Zam Zam Water In Urdu! The top layer sticks to the surface, bottom layer sticks to the lower surface, and each successive layer travels at a lower speed, which shears the layers on what to write scholarship essay either side. Oil film is what does the lubricating (not absolutely true on a REAL engineering basis, but good enough for us, here). There are several types of 'oil films'. The hydrodynamic film is thesis plan phd, only perhaps 0.001 thick in a 1 inch bearing. Surfaces are kept apart by several functions, one of which is the hydrostatic function which is scholarship essay, primarily from oil pressure from the oil pump. Thus, ONE of the purposes of the oil pump is to provide the zam zam 'keep the surfaces apart oil pressure' inside the bearing, etc. This is critical when there are slow heavy loads and thusly for the starting up of the what to write scholarship engine.
Please be sure to read this small paragraph again . oil slipperiness is not really involved! If you jump to the conclusion that poor oil pump pressure (or, same effect, from excessive bearing wear clearances) can cause problems . you would be correct. BMW is zam zam water essay in urdu, hardly the only company having starter motor clutch problems. The common Honda Gold Wing used what amounts to fat rollers or roller bearings if you wish, to what to write scholarship provide a one-way clutch, and osmosis potato they have a habit of gumming up from what to write scholarship essay, oil residue varnishes, etc. An expensive repair job, sometimes fixed by psychology paper, using high detergent oils or additives for awhile. BMW K bike starter sprag clutch problems results in a high cost repair job, and the same high detergent additive routine may work here. The full-synthetic oils, particularly certain types, are quite good at preventing these costly repairs. Classification of types of lubricating base oils: This particular section was plagiarized from several combined internet articles, and what to write then highly edited by me.
There is also a large amount of my own material here. Since it is all intermingled, I claim NO copyright for this particular section. Further, I can't attribute to potato coursework various authors either because of my extensive editing. The American Petroleum Institute (API) classifies base oils under five categories. To Write Essay! These categories help identify base stocks in finished oil formulations to ensure that engine oil performance demands are met. Group V: These specialized base oils, with few exceptions, are chemically engineered stocks that do not fall into psychology paper, any of the categories previously mentioned. Typical examples of Group V stocks are esters, polyglycols and silicone. This group comprises all synthetic oils other than PAO's. A short list includes: Esters such as Polyolesters (Neopentyl Polyolesters, Diesters (Dibasic acid esters); various Alkylated Aromatics, PAG's (poly Glycol/various Glycol's), Silicones etc. This group of synthetics is primarily used for various industrial and aviation applications. Polyolesters are most commonly used for turbine and aviation applications.
They are very thermally stable and ideally suited for to write, very high temperature use. Of A! Hence their use in such things as high temperature greases, jet engines and gas turbines. They have a very low coefficient of friction and to write are sometimes added in small amounts to computer toefl essay mineral oils and synthetic oils to lower the coefficient of what scholarship, friction of the finished product. Diesters are most commonly used in essay aviation and industrial compressor applications because of the tremendous anti-scuffing protection they offer. What To Write! They are often added in thesis plan phd small amounts to essay PAO-based two-cycle oils as this feature is very beneficial to a two-cycle motor oil. Diesters are shear stable, have good lubricity, detergency and are polar. meaning they have an electrical charge that causes them to cling to metal surfaces. THAT is a desirable trait for most lubricants. Diesters are not compatible with all seal materials as they can cause excess swelling of many common seal materials. Because of this they are often added in industry small amounts to automotive PAO based oils to what essay provide positive seal function. Silicones offer wide temperature performance and are sometimes used in compressor applications although this use has fallen out of favor in recent years. More often it can be found in high performance automotive braking systems these days.
I HIGHLY suggest you do NOT use DOT5 silicone brake fluids. A discussion of why is in the brake and chemicals articles. Terms and words used in the petroleum industry, to which you possibly have been exposed-to, are not very descriptive to laypersons, and I am going to general psychology research paper mention some of what to write scholarship, these terms briefly here, and if you are interested in a more in-depth discussion, simply do a search by any common search engine, such as Google's. Aromatics means the molecules are what is paper ideas, called Alkyl Benzenes. Naphthenes are Paraffins in a RING form of molecules. MOST synthetic oils are made by Polymerizing short chain alpha-olefin hydrocarbons, which then are changed to longer chain types called PAO's. These have molecules with vastly less variables than if made from crude oils directly. What To Write Scholarship Essay! although chemically they are similar in zam zam essay many respects. Why Choose Synthetic Lubricants? One must be very cautious about using the various Group IV and to write scholarship V oils; they may not be compatible with seals in computer some vehicles, and as seals are usually made by more than one manufacturer, the seal material may not be necessarily compatible with an to write essay, oil even though the seal has the computer SAME part number. Still, these are usually THE best performing oils. More. for the even more technically-minded, lots of nerdy stuff too . on oil functioning . What! here I get into how lubrication really works, and lots more.
Looking at extremely tiny irregularities in as-machined and broken-in surfaces, a LOW viscosity oil allows the oil to thesis plan phd creep into very small microscopic areas. As the load increases, the oil is to write essay, squeezed between the parts and dynamically increases the oil viscosity; which allows higher load carrying. This is why a very thin oil can work so well in modern cars designed for it (including small clearances). This is why a 10W30 or a 5W30 or even 0W-30, all being very popular or SPECIFIED today for cars, works so well in modern cars (which don't have flat tappet designs, another story), and general psychology paper ideas modern engines last so long (precise machining, proper selection of compatible materials, expert design for lubrication, improved oils, etc.). It is also, in an oblique way, the reason old Harley's had very thick oil specified. I'm NOT putting Harley down here, just telling real facts. One could say the same thing about many old engine designs. What Scholarship! . and thesis plan phd some of what, this applies to water flat tappet old performance cars, Porsche boxer engines, and so on (and Airheads) . as I described earlier herein. Oil wedging is a fundamental principle.
I will begin by discussing a rotating crankshaft; a crank journal, and a conrod big end. The spinning crankshaft does not have equal pressures all around any given bearing surface, as the pressures are not equal over its 360į rotation due to what to write scholarship when the piston pushes (and pulls) on the rod. In the bearing area itself, the thesis plan phd parts are ever-so-small eccentric to each other . or egg shaped, or however you want to visualize this within that tiny perhaps 0.001 bearing clearance. This clearance is NOT necessarily the MEASURED parts clearance, but the dynamic clearance . To Write! more or less. Getting deeper into how thin oil films work (perhaps, in the molecular region) is way too nerdy for even this article. Computer Essay! It would get into what is really meant by oiliness, adsorption, more on hydrodynamic lubrication, how the film can be penetrated, and what to write scholarship so on. When I studied this sort of stuff, I kept my notes; and my industry information, and they, mostly typewritten on thesis plan phd both sides of the what to write paper, are inches thick. Lubrication is of a potato coursework, a VERY complex subject, AND . it is still evolving. I'll make it simpler from here on. (at least in THIS article).
So, what's this ZDDP stuff all about? ZDDP (or ZDTP) is important for BMW Airhead engines. ALL ZDDP is what, NOT the same. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate is both an antioxidant (you almost never hear about THAT) and an antiwear agent, and most formulations are somewhat volatile to osmosis a bit too volatile. As the oil standards specified by car makers and the SAE went from lower to higher letters (SG to SM, as example), the oils had less ZDDP. Newer standards reduced sulfated ash, phosphorous, sulfur, and, of scholarship, course, zinc. The reduction in zinc was to keep $$$ catalytic converters from being contaminated . which reduces or eliminates their prime function.
The other reductions were to lengthen the lifetime for the Oxygen Sensors on modern cars and bikes. Think about what I just said about oxygen sensors. Essay In Urdu! You DO know that your K1100, etc., has one? Yes, that means you do not want a high ZDDP level for K bike oils, but you need SOME on the earliest of the K bikes (1983-1986) due to their design, which was changed in a few areas, and not really advertised as such for lubrication purpose. What To Write Essay! Thus, use of ZDDP and ZDTP in psychology paper ideas K bike oils is a trade-off.
I suggest medium-high levels for a very early Classic K bike. Most SM oils still contain some ZDDP, but in essay a less volatile formulation. This prolongs cat converter life, but still provides some anti-wear protection for engines with what is called high slide-to-roll ratios. So, just as a hint, if your SM oil does contain ZDDP, then it MIGHT be OK, contrary to even BMW recommendations . but you need to KNOW. Getting the information, which includes the ZDDP concentration, is very UNlikely to be from reading the container printing. Oil drain intervals, etc: I have mentioned how NOT changing oils TOO often is better . well, some, in total disbelief, have asked for proof of Snowbum's crazy ideas . So, I say, briefly: Oils, if properly filtered, can IMPROVE in some characteristics, as SOME miles pile up, and changing oil too often is NOT a good idea.
One idea you might ponder upon (a tiny bit) is computer, whether or not the what essay oil manufacturers add too much of some additive, because they know it will be degraded over time and miles. For just one of thesis, a number of articles on this subject: http://papers.sae.org/2007-01-4133/ Obviously, there are limits. Viscosity improvers may be depleted too soon, if you extend oil changes too far. That means that 20W50 oil for your Airhead might be something else besides a 20W50, after enough miles. If you had a motorcycle with the GEARBOX being lubricated by what to write, the engine oil, things can be much worse for the oil, as the computer gears WILL shear the essay longer-chain-molecules of the oil. Psychology Ideas! This changes the viscosity, but also has not pleasant effects on to write essay other oil qualities. Such bikes should have the oil changed more often, see your owner's booklet. Luckily, BMW Airheads and Classic K bikes have separate engine and gearbox oils. However, SOME oil shearing does occur on these bikes.
If you are going on you structure longer rides, say over 40 miles in what to write scholarship essay mild weather, and most of your riding is on such longer rides, and seldom quite short ones, you can likely SAFELY EXTEND oil changes. In some instances even two years and general paper 10,000 miles, but this would be about the LIMIT, under very best conditions, and would be for a Motorcycle specific, High Quality, FULL synthetic oil. For a high quality part-synthetic, such as Golden Spectro 4 in what to write 20W50 or 10W40 grades, I advise changing oil at not over 1 year and 5000 miles, but SOME riders might be able to go a bit longer and to 8000. See article 51B. Multiweight (multi-grade) oils are now vastly better than old-time single weight oils, for a variety of reasons. How Do! Multiweight oils are typically manufactured using pour-point depressants to THIN the base oil . so it flows and what scholarship pumps easily when cold. They also add viscosity improvers to thicken the oil at higher temperatures. There are limits to this sort of thing, and it is tricky to make a quality oil that covers the thesis plan phd SAE range of 10W50, and what even 10W40, for DINO oils . and easier to thesis cement do this type of oil compounding with part-synthetics or full-synthetics . which, naturally, cost more. Even back as little as.
1990, to get a good 10W40 oil was difficult (the standard was 10W30 for what to write scholarship essay, cars); today we have SOME 10W50 oils that are fairly good. NOTE that turbocharged cars often have very strict requirements for psychology paper, oil change intervals, and type of oils. Think about what essay this . ask yourself WHY! Do you now see why the use of proper oil and change interval for an AIRHEAD, is general, important? Very Specific Oil Recommendations . To Write Scholarship Essay! COMMENTS . For AIRHEADS:
General notes for the above section: Do NOT use cheap energy saving (so marked, and probably have starburst symbol) car oils in your motorcycle, particularly NOT in Airheads. You CAN use them in an emergency. ***Fully synthetic oils may not allow your Airhead lifters (cam followers) to general psychology research properly rotate!! I have NO direct experience! But, this bit of esoterica is to write scholarship essay, ONE of the research ideas three reasons I have NOT fully recommended full-synthetic oils for Airheads, unless conditions warrant. I believe the oils I have recommended, above, are OK in this regard.
Classic K bike engine oil recommendations: This applies to K1, K75, K100, K1100, K1200. Use BMW premium oil filters in to write your Airhead. Use the water two-part hinged filter if you can. The K bike can safely use all sorts of filters, I use BMW branded ones, you don't have to on the K bikes. The K bike filter is upside down, so there is no need for a drain-back valve in what to write its filter. NOTE: I do NOT like ANY FRAM oil filters. YES, there IS a reason to also NOT use K N AIR filters! ZINC. ZDDP.
ZDTP; 'special' break-in oils, etc. Thesis Plan Phd! expanded section. Just what really is ZDDP. ETC. Yes, it is what to write scholarship, true, that that ZDDP has excellent anti-scuff properties. Thesis Plan Phd! It was considerably later than ZDDP's introduction that it came into wide use for anti-scuffing. What Scholarship Essay! In the 1960s, high performance flat-tappet camshafts were common. It was found that a zinc level of 0.07% was very helpful.
Back in the 1960s, all new camshafts were generally phosphate-coated, and coursework together with the ZDDP in the engine oil, the brand-new camshafts and lifters were protected from premature wear, particularly during the critical break-in period. As engines became more powerful, and pressures on parts increased, the level of zinc was increased to 0.09%. What Scholarship Essay! Oils changed too, becoming much more complex, and additives for research paper ideas, friction modifications, antioxidants, detergents, etc., became common and what scholarship essay more sophisticated. Fuel economy began to be of some concern, and the zinc content was continually increased, with premium and super-premium oils commonly having as much as 0.2% . into the 1980s and essay 1990s. ZDDP or ZDTP is also helpful for what to write scholarship, K bike engines, but particularly the very earliest ones, which had some places with different metallurgy, such as different cam characteristics, etc. FEW know about that, for the K100.
ZDDP protects valve tips and pushrod tips. Anyplace where galling and scuffing problems can exist, ZDDP is industry, usually quite beneficial. However, excessive amounts of ZDDP are not a good thing for such as a water-cooled BMW K bike engine, and all the Airheads. It is not zinc, but phosphorus content that is the biggest item of importance in ZDDP, as far as wear goes. The SAE has published a well-known chart (to for engineers) on the effect of differing loads versus phosphorus levels (there are other charts, zinc, etc. . not important right here). What To Write! Most of how do you structure, these types of charts (there are a lot of them) are presented as lifter loads, in pounds, versus ZDDP or Phosphorus, and the criteria is to write essay, scuffing of parts. What is osmosis, interesting about the charts is that the curve is NOT linear, particularly so at LOWER concentrations of phosphorus.
At lower loadings, only a concentration of maybe 0.03% is needed. At higher loadings. which occurs with high lift cams or high pressures or both (easier to scholarship essay think of high performance engines) . concentrations of 0.08% are needed. What is needed means that MORE than that amount is required, due to burn-off of the computer additives, and for a safety factor. Additives cost more than the oil stock does. You can read into THAT quite a lot! You can also think about the fact that it takes ZINC to what to write establish the proper glass layer from the phosphorus (Phosphates), and ZINC is bad for cat converters . Cement! so oil mfrs make compromises, that are not necessarily good for your Airhead bike!
ZDDP amounts have been reduced every now and then in car engine oils, now ZDDP is almost completely eliminated. That is because the what scholarship essay additive contaminated the $$$ catalytic converters. At the thesis plan phd early stages of scholarship essay, reductions, phosphorus limits were lowered to osmosis of a potato 0.10%, and zinc levels were dropped also . but quite long ago. In 2004 came the so-called Tier 2 emissions standards, and OEM warranties changed to what essay 10 years or 100K miles, and phosphorus dropped again, to 0.08% . and zinc went down to cement industry 0.09%. What To Write Essay! The levels are much lower now . or, gone.
There is thesis plan phd, no question that, for newer generation car engines, modern oils are all that is needed. These oils and scholarship essay the more precise automated machining and improved metallurgy, various alloys, improved cooling, etc., are a big part of of a potato coursework, why car engines can last 250K+ miles these days. It is also the reason that high mileages can be obtained on the Classic K bike engines, which contain a lot of the essay newer technologies. Establishing protective layers or very hard layers, on cams and psychology research ideas followers, is dealt with by many small changes in modern engines. The result allows break-in of the cam and followers and other parts, when brand-new, without needing ZDDP. For most Airhead owners, that is hardly the problem, since their engine's parts were long-ago broken in, hopefully on what scholarship essay ZDDP oils. BUT, the zinc (and phosphorus) are needed continuously in Airheads; and osmosis coursework if the cam, etc. , was NOT heat treated well-enough, or perhaps not broken in on a proper oil . deterioration will begin, sometimes rapidly, when using the to write wrong oil. I have PERSONALLY witnessed oil failures in this area of the water in urdu Airhead engines.
High valve spring loads compound problems. In a nutshell, EPA regulations, SAE and what engine makers and car makers have all 'conspired' against the type of oil YOU NEED for your Airhead. Luckily such oils are still available. There is toefl, some information on oils, with the heading title of what to write, Information on acceptable engine oils: in this linked article: http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/oilcansimple. I suggest you either stop here read just that section in that article then resume here, or make a note to read it after finishing this article, below. Some, particularly in racing or maybe just overly nerdy street vehicle owners who own old vehicles, may use a dedicated break-in oil with a ZDDP additive; they may also have used a coating on a essay the cam, etc., during assembly, for extra protection at first start-up. I have been asked about this subject, so thought I would put the asked-for information here. A non-detergent break-in oil could be a straight 30W or a 10W30, you could add a ZDDP additive. You do not have to what to write essay do that. Do you need, or should you use, these above super-special oils: Probably NOT. 800 or 900 is not nearly enough.
Transmission, driveshaft, rear drive oils: There is ONE BRONZE, not brass, shim in the rear drives in the Airheads. BMW specified a GL5 oil. BMW knew what is correct, and thesis plan phd I agree. GL5 NOT GL4! in ALL AIRHEADS. 800 cc total oil). Essay! If you have problems shifting, try it for a thousand miles or so, see if it helps.
If not, you have other problems. It may increase the lifetime for the bearings, etc. Thesis Plan Phd! ABSOLUTELY DO NOT use the Dow M product with synthetic oils, and DO NOT increase the dose! For the rear drive, you can use about to write scholarship essay 2%. Here is a link to an article about oils, especially for motorcycles, and it has some different, and thesis plan phd interesting, viewpoints. It's a bit long, but worth the read, and you may well like the method of to write essay, presenting the information. To all of potato coursework, you out there reading this hugely long article: It is what to write scholarship essay, all YOUR choice. I have only a essay tried to inform. Believe what you want. You will do that anyway. 01/25/2007: slight revisions and editing for clarity.
Remove poor formatting. 01/22/2008: edit slightly for clarity. 07/12/2008: minor clarifications. 07/14/2008: more clarifications. 02/27/2009: Added addendum #1, make minor corrections otherwise, in line with changes by SAE, etc. 03/09/2009: Final release, includes some changes in what essay line with the latest oils available. 11/16/2009: Add last section.
01/21/2010: minor updates and clarifications; add script to code. 04/21/2010: Add to essay section on to write scholarship essay ZDDP. 06/18/2010: Updated airhead oil recommendations to include caveat on Mobil 1 V-Twin oil; changed the commentary slightly for the Spectro GS4 20W50. 09/01/2010: added hyperlink to SAE article. 11/12/2010: slight updating, mostly for clarity and poor grammar. 11/18/2010: add ppm of zinc for 4T oil. 02/24/2011: was 52C. 04/10/2011: Fix K N article internal hyperlink and clean up entire article SOME. 08/03/2012: Get much deeper into synthetics, etc. 10/12/2012: revise layout; add QR code; add language code; update Google Ad-Sense code; update article contents; language button removed later on.
11/05/2013: Clean up article. still is messy. clarify a few details. 03/03/2014: Revise article for clarity; add Ph and Z info on Delo, etc. 07/16/2014: Minor additions, no revisions. 09/03/2014: Clarify some areas; do a further cleanup on 09/07/2014 finish on how do 09/24/2014. 12/26/2014: Add lengthy note near top about modern car engines needed oils filters. Eliminate some font sizes, add minor notes corrections. 04/03/2015: Add simplified section. 05/01/2015: Update article. 03/10/2016: Update layout, eliminate duplications, update metacodes, format, clarify details. 09/25/2016: Update scripts, html, metacodes, slight changes in layout/fonts/etc. Improve details in section on transmission, rear drive, driveshaft oils.
05/31/2017: Reduce colors and fonts, minor text changes for clarity. Slight updates on what scholarship zddp amounts per latest mfr information and thesis cement industry testing.
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Ils ont travaille tous les deux plusieurs annees dans des etablissement similaires a Chez Paul. Of A Coursework? Ils se sont rencontres a The Old Oak, un gastro-pub sur Paddington Street, ou ils ont travaille ensemble pendant 3 ans. Paul et David sont egalement tres complementaires. What Essay? Paul a travaille dans la vente et le marketing avant de se reconvertir dans la restauration en devenant gerant de The Old Oak. Zam Zam Water Essay? David quant a lui a passe toute sa carriere dans la restauration.
Son dernier poste etait responsable des cuisines a The Old Oak. Mme Sarah James, une amie de David et Paul, a prevue d'investir dans le restaurant au cote de Paul. Le marche local, defini comme le kilometre carre autour du restaurant, a ete evalue a 7,4 m?. Essay? Une estimation du trafic dans Restaurant Road a ete realise par un cabinet d'etude independant. Thesis Cement Industry? Le trafic journalier est estime a 6 550 personnes / jour. Il y a deux autres restaurants dans Restaurant Road, ils proposent de la cuisine italienne et asiatique et beneficie d'un bon taux d'occupation. To Write Essay? Leurs principaux clients sont les employes des bureaux avoisinant a leur du dejeuner en semaine et les habitants du quartier les soirs et weekend.
Le chiffre d'affaires prevu pour 2013 est de 524 186 ?, nous estimons pouvoir atteindre 558 660 ? en 2015 (3.2% de croissance annuelle cumulee). Sur la base du plan actuel, l'EBE devrait croitre de 17 806 ? en 2013 (3.4% de marge ) a 43 594 ? (7.8% de marge) en 2015. Cement Industry? L'amelioration de la marge est principalement due a un meilleur remplissage du restaurant a partir de l'annee 2 se traduisant par une meilleure absorption des frais fixes. Le niveau eleve de dotation aux amortissement et d'interets nous forcera a reconnaitre une perte en annee 1. Le flux de tresorerie operationnel et le flux de tresorerie devraient etre positifs sur toute la duree du plan. Le besoin de financement de Chez Paul a ete estime a 263 k?.
Les actionnaires apporteront 100 k? sous forme de capital social. L'objectif de ce business plan est d'obtenir un pret bancaire pour les 163 k? restant. Exemple de business plan partie 2 : Societe. Chez Paul Ltd est une societe a responsabilite limite de droit anglais enregistree sous le numero 00000000. To Write Scholarship Essay? Le siege social de la societe est situe au 143 Restaurant Road London NW6 4PF. Thesis Cement? Le siege social est egalement le lieu d'activite principal de la societe. Chez Paul Ltd. What Scholarship? a deux actionnaires. Mme James est la gerante de Dgd Co Limited, elle est egalement une amie de longue date de Paul et David. Chez Paul sera un restaurant d'une capacite de 43 couverts situe au 143 Restaurant Road a Londres. Restaurant Road est une rue tres frequentee dans laquelle se trouvent 10 boutiques et 2 autres restaurants.
La rue est entouree de bureaux attirant un trafic de d'employes a l'heure du dejeuner pendant la semaine, la rue attire en soiree et les weekends les familles vivant aux alentours. Le restaurant sera dirige par M Paul Cunningham qui agira en tant que gerant de la societe. Paul est un restaurateur experimente ayant dirige The Old Oak, un gastro-pub situe sur Paddington Street a Londres, durant les 5 dernieres annees. Sous la direction de Paul le chiffres d'affaire et l'EBE de The Old Oak ont progresse respectivement de 345 ?k a 432 ?k (4.6% TCAC) et de 21 ?k a 28 ?k (5.9% TCAC). Avant de rejoindre The Old Oak, Paul a passe 12 ans en dans la direction marketing et commerciale de Abc Food Co ou il a developpe de solides contacts aupres de plusieurs fournisseurs de produits alimentaires. Paul a un BSc en Economie et Management de l'universite de Bristol. Paul sera seconde par David Jones qui sera en charge de la cuisine. General Ideas? David a travaille toute sa carriere dans la restauration. What Scholarship Essay? Il a commence en tant que serveur en 1987, puis est devenu cuisinier en 1995 et est reste dans la cuisine depuis.
Paul et David ont travaille ensemble a The Old Oak les 3 dernieres annees. Exemple de business plan partie 3 : Produits et Services. Chez Paul sera un restaurant francais a tarifs moderes. Le restaurant proposera de la cuisine traditionnelle : Plats principaux : entrecote, croque monsieur, blanquette de veau, salade cesar, salade nicoise Legumes : frites ou salade Entrees : oeufs mayonnaises, pate, assiette de crudites Deserts : mousse au chocolat, creme brulee, tarte aux pommes. L'offre comprendra egalement : une formule dejeuner en semaine (incluant un plats du jour ne figurant pas sur la carte et une entree ou un desert) qui devrait satisfaire l'envie de diversite et la contrainte budgetaire des employes des bureaux situes a proximite du restaurant; ainsi qu'un menu roti du dimanche destine aux habitants du quartier. La duree moyenne d'un repas est estimee entre 40 et 60 minutes. Exemple de business plan partie 4 : Etude de Marche.
La direction a engage Fdv. Water In Urdu? Consulting pour realiser une etude de marche du quartier autour de Restaurant Road. Fdv. What Scholarship? Consulting rapporte qu'il y a 16 restaurants situe dans le kilometre carre autour de Chez Paul et estime que ces restaurants on how do you structure a essay, realise un chiffre d'affaires moyen de 463 k? valorisant ainsi le marche local a 7,4 m?. D'apres le dernier recensement, le nombre d'habitants par kilometre carre dans le quartier est evalue a 28 075, 36% des menages se composent d'un adulte uniquement, 48% de plus d'un adulte sans enfant et 16% d'adultes vivant avec des enfants.
Il y a environ 3 000 entreprises situees dans le kilometre carre autour du restaurant, ces entreprises emploient en moyenne 12 personnes (bien que 83% emploient moins de 10 personnes). Au niveau de la rue, l'enquete de terrain mene par Fdv. To Write? evalue le trafic journalier a environ 6 550 personnes. Fdv a identifie 2 segments : les employes des bureaux avoisinants actifs au moment du dejeuner en semaine, les habitants du quartier plus actifs les soirs et weekends. Nous anticipons que Chez Paul attirera a la fois les employes des bureaux avoisinants le midi en semaine et les habitants des quartier les soirs et weekends. D'apres notre enquete de terrain les employes de bureaux presentent les caracteristiques suivantes : 40% ont entre 45 - 60 minutes pour dejeuner 15% dejeunent regulierement avec des clients 10% fond des dejeuner d'equipe au moins une fois par mois leur budget se situe entre 6 et 20 ? Les observations faites sur les deux autres restaurants (capacite totale de 76 couverts) de la rue suggerent qu'ils servent en moyenne : Pendant la semaine (par jour):
115 clients au dejeuner 74 clients au diner. Pendant le weekend (par jour): Sur le segment des employes, notre comprehension est que les principaux facteurs influencant la demande sont : Service rapide : les employes on computer, en moyenne 40 minutes maximum pour dejeuner afin d'etre de retour a l'heure au travail Diversite culinaire : ils sont lasses de manger systematiquement la meme chose a midi et recherche donc de la diversite Prix : l'etude de terrain suggere in to write scholarship, budget de 6 a 13 ? pour le dejeuner. Sur le segment des menages nous pensons que les principaux facteurs influencant la demande sont : L'atmosphere: les consommateurs recherchent avant tout un endroit conviviale ou se retrouver en famille ou entre amis Prix: l'etude de terrain indique un budget de 12 a 20 ? pour un diner. Nous avons identifie 2 types de concurrences dans notre quartier: les autres restaurants qui representent une alternative immediate a notre restaurant, et les vendeurs de sandwiches et plats prepares a emporter qui constituent un moyen de substitution a la restauration. Il y a 2 autres restaurants dans notre rue et 14 autres dans le kilometre carre autour du restaurant. Voici les principales caracteristique des 2 restaurant dans notre rue : Style: Italien Capacite: 44 couverts Ouvert depuis: mars 1995 Dernier chiffre d'affaires connu : 552 ?k (2006) Dernier EBE connu : 32 ?k (2006, 5.8% de marge) Gamme de prix : 7,5 - 9,7 ? pour les pizza et pates, 12 - 14 ? pour les plats a base de viande Vente a emporter : non.
Style : Asiatique Capacite : 32 couverts Ouvert depuis : janvier 2003 Dernier chiffre d'affaires connu : N/D Dernier EBE connu : N/D Gamme de prix : 3,5 - 6,5 ? pour les entrees 8,4 - 13,2 ? pour les plats principaux Vente a emporter : oui, -10% sur la carte. Little Italy et China Express ciblent la meme clientele que Chez Paul. Potato? Etant donne qu'ils proposent un style de cuisine different du notre, nous ne les voyons pas comme une menace directe a l'activite de Chez Paul mais plutot comme une offre complementaire renforcant l'attractivite de la rue. Parmi les autres restaurants dans le kilometre carre autour de Chez Paul, un seul offre pour l'instant de la cuisine francaise laissant l'espace pour un second restaurant sur ce segment : La principale barriere a l'entree identifiee par la direction est l'emplacement du restaurant. To Write Scholarship Essay? L'espace commercial dans le quartier ou se trouve le restaurant est tres rare. Essay In Urdu? De plus tres peu d'emplacements sont suffisamment larges pour pouvoir y installer un restaurant reduisant de fait le risque d'un nouvel entrant. La reglementation principale pour les Restaurants sont les lois relatives a l'hygiene et a la securite alimentaire.
La Food Standards Agency (FSA) est l'organe gouvernementale en charge de l'application de la reglementation. Il n'y a pas d'obligation de formation prealable a l'ouverture d'un restaurant au Royaume Uni, en revanche le gerant est responsable legalement de s'assurer que ses employes ont recu un niveau de formation suffisant. De part sa longue experience dans la restauration, la direction de Chez Paul est familiere avec l'ensemble des directives de la FSA. To Write? La direction a prevu de dedier une section entiere du programme de formation des nouveaux employes a l'hygiene et la securite alimentaire. Thesis Plan Phd? La direction s'est egalement abonne a la lettre d'information de la FSA afin de se tenir au courant des evolutions de la reglementation. Les restaurateurs sont egalement requis d'enregistrer leur locaux aupres du departement de sante environnementale de leur autorite locale 28 jours avant l'ouverture.
Les locaux de Chez Paul ont obtenu la classification A3 necessaire pour les restaurant et la direction s'assurera que l'equipement de la cuisine reste conforme aux normes. La direction a egalement obtenu la licence necessaire afin de pouvoir servir de l'alcool. Exemple de business plan partie 5 : Strategie. Chez Paul s'efforcera de fournir un service rapide ainsi qu'une cuisine variee permettant aux employes des bureaux aux alentours de rompre avec leur quotidien alimentaire tout en etant de retour a l'heure au travail. Nous mettrons egalement l'accent sur la qualite de service en esperant que les clients satisfaits revienne le soir ou le weekend en famille ou entre amis. Nous serons egalement tres present sur internet afin d'attirer des clients les soirs, le weekends et aux heures creuses. What? Les principaux media identifies par la direction pour cela sont Facebook, Foursquare, LaFourchette et Groupon.
Notre principal avantage concurrentiel sera le depaysement culinaire offert a nos clients. La cuisine francaise est relativement populaire a Londres et etant l'un des deux seuls restaurants proposant ce type de cuisine dans le kilometre carre autour de Restaurant Street devrait faire du restaurant un point d'attraction naturel. Nous pensons egalement que notre strategie de marketing en ligne centree sur les reseau sociaux devrait nous donner un avantage sur nos concurrents locaux et nous permettre d'attirer plus de clients (notamment en heures creuses). In Urdu? Parmi les 16 autres restaurants dans le quartier : seulement 10 ont un site internet seulement 8 ont une page Facebook (dont 3 inactives - aucun messages depuis 2 mois) seulement 2 ont blog seulement 1 a ete apercu sur les reseaux publicitaires aucun n'est present sur Foursquare. Les prix de Chez Paul seront moderes. To Write Essay? Sur la base de nos hypotheses de volume et de mix produit, nous anticipons les revenus moyens par client suivants : Dejeuner - semaine : 12? Diner - semaine : 17? Dejeuner - weekend : 15? Diner - weekend : 20? Vous trouverez une liste complete de nos tarifs dans le menu joint a ce business plan. La direction de Chez Paul tentera de promouvoir activement le restaurant en utilisant les moyens suivants : Base de Donnees Clients : Nous nous efforcerons de construire une base de donnees de nos clients. General Psychology Research Ideas? Les clients inclus dans la base de donnees recevront des promotions ayant pour but d'augmenter leur fidelite. Promotion sur Internet : Notre strategie de promotions en ligne sera centree sur les elements suivants : Site transactionnel : notre site internet affichera des photos du restaurant realisees par un photographe professionnel, notre menu et nos prix, un plan permettant de nous trouver facilement, ainsi que des avis de nos clients.
Le site permettra egalement aux visiteurs de reserver une table ou de souscrire a notre lettre d'information mensuelle Blog : Paul et David publieront chaque semaine un article sur la cuisine francaise : recettes, suggestions de vins, etc. To Write Essay? Facebook : nous communiquerons avec nos clients sur notre page Facebook. Water In Urdu? Nos clients auront l'opportunite de proposer des ameliorations, de voter sur les changements de menu, et d'etre informe sur les evenements speciaux a venir Publicite : nous offrirons regulierement des menus a prix reduit en dehors des heures creuses sur differents sites (Groupon, LaFourchette). What To Write Scholarship Essay? Nous offrirons egalement une reduction de 5% et un verre de vin aux clients signalant leur presence dans le restaurant sur Foursquare. Paul assistera aux principaux evenements organises aux alentours de la rue afin de construire une bonne relation avec la communaute de Restaurant Road. Les serveurs seront formes aux differentes techniques de ventes permettant d'augmenter le ticket moyen de leurs tables et s'efforceront d'inciter les clients satisfaits a publier sur internet une critique positive sur le restaurant.
Les principales etapes de developement identifiees par la direction sont les suivantes : Obtenir un financement bancaire (d'ici 1 mois) Ouverture (d'ici 2 mois) Atteinte de la rentabilite au de l'EBE (dans les 6 mois suivant l'ouverture) Ancrer le restaurant sur internet : objectif de 100 likes sur Facebook, 30 avis de consommateur et 10 articles sur des blogs dans les 3 mois suivant le demarage de l'activite. Les principaux risques identifies par la direction sont : L'arrivee d'un concurrent dans la rue Un scandale sanitaire Une serie de mauvaises critiques dans la presse ou sur internet. Nous pensons que le risque d'un nouvel entrant est limite compte tenu de la rarete des espaces commerciaux pouvant accueillir un restaurant dans le quartier. La direction de Chez Paul prendra toute les precautions necessaires afin de s'assurer que le restaurant reste en conformites avec les normes sanitaires. Thesis Plan Phd? La formation des nouveaux employes aux normes d'hygiene et de securite alimentaire sera dirige par by what, David qui a plus de 18 annees d'experience dans ce domaine. Chez Paul a pour ambition d'offrir la meilleure experience possible a ses clients.
Si un client insatisfait venait a publier un avis negatif sur le restaurant, la direction prendrait toutes les mesures necessaires pour identifier et corriger la source du probleme, puis offrirai au client insatisfait un repas gratuit afin qu'il puisse se faire une deuxieme opinion sur le restaurant. Exemple de business plan partie 6 : Operations. La direction de Chez Paul a mis en place un certains nombres de procedures encadrant la conduite des operations au jour le jour. Le restaurant sera ouvert 7 sur 7 pour le dejeuner et le diner necessitant une rotation du personnel. Zam Zam? Le gerant sera charge de la gestion de l'emploi du temps. Le choix du menu a ete volontairement limite afin de faciliter la preparation des plats en cuisine. Scholarship? La plupart des plats peuvent etre prepares d'avance ce qui permet de reduire le temps d'attente des clients durant les heures de pointe. Water? La preparation des plats continuera pendant les heures creuses de l'apres-midi. Le responsable de cuisine sera en charge de la gestion des achats et du stockage des ingredients. To Write Scholarship Essay? Un suivi rigoureux des couts sera mis en place. Le restaurant sera ouvert tout les jours de 11h a 23h ce qui necessitera le personnel suivant : Les cuisiniers seront embauches en CDI tandis qu'une combinaison de CDI et de vacataires sera utilisee pour remplir les autres postes.
La direction de Chez Paul a mis en place un processus de recrutement efficace permettant de recruter du personnel experimente sur chacun des postes. Of A? La majeure partie de recrutements se fera sur recommandation. La formation du personnel sera effectuee en interne. What To Write? Le programme comprendra les points suivants: service interaction avec les clients gerer les plaintes hygiene et securite alimentaire. Les principaux actifs identifies par le management comprennent le contrat location, l'equipement de la cuisine et la base de donnee client. Le contrat de location a une duree de 10 ans avec une option de renouvellement pour 10 ans supplementaire donnant ainsi a la direction un horizon de long terme pour developper et perenniser l'activite. L'equipement de la cuisine est garanti 3 ans et sera assure.
La base de donnee client sera sauvegardee regulierement afin d'eviter toute perte de donnees. Paul a de bonnes relations avec un certain nombre de fournisseurs avec qui il a travaille lorsqu'il etait chez Abc Food Co. General Psychology Paper? Les fournisseurs suivants ont ete selectionnes en fonction de la frequence de livraison souhaite par la direction : Fournisseur : Good Supplies Ltd (alternative : Fresh Food Co Ltd) Delais de paiement : 15 jours Frequence de livraison : 2 fois par semaine. Viandes et volailles : Fournisseur : The North Butcher Ltd. What To Write? (alternative : Aberdeen Meat Ltd.) Delais de paiement : 7 jours Frequence de livraison : 2 fois par semaine. Fournisseur : Smith Beverage plc (alternative : Camden Drinks Ltd.) Delais de paiement : 30 jours Frequence de livraison : 1 fois par semaine. C'est ici que se termine la partie 1 de cette exemple de business plan pour restaurant, n'hesitez pas a nous faire part de vos commentaires ou questions. Ecrivez facilement votre business plan. Decouvrez notre logiciel de business plan en ligne. Conseils et exemples. Dossier de presentation.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at to write, this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. You Structure A Essay! IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay. In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and to write scholarship, provide you with the resources to get an computer, A. I'm a recipient of an scholarship essay, IB Diploma, and I happened to general psychology research paper ideas receive an A on my IB Extended Essay.
If you donít believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by to write scholarship essay, what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay, and of a, English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In laymanís terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A. The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an to write scholarship essay, advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the industry IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult).
You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an what to write scholarship essay, experiment/solve a problem such as in this paper. Zam Zam Essay! Most schools allow you to pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to one at another school through the scholarship essay Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an thesis industry, abstract (one-page synopsis of what scholarship essay, your essay), a table of contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from psychology research ideas 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography. Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to what to write scholarship the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldnít be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Here is general ideas, a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of to write, freedom when it comes to picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless?
I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Writing a Grade A Extended Essay. Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on It. I love British theatre and ended up writing mine about a revolution in post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the thesis plan phd Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USCís School of what to write, Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out thesis plan phd which classes you enjoy the most and why you enjoy them.
Do you like Math because you like to problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts? Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by scholarship essay, putting pen to paper. What was your favorite chapter you learned in cement, that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics?
What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of to write scholarship, brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line. You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you canít write 4,000 words on it . You canít write about WWII because that would be a book worth of material.
You donít want to write about what type of soup prisoners of osmosis potato coursework, war received in POW camps because you probably canít come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in German POW camps were directly affected by what scholarship essay, the Nazis successes and failures. This may be too obvious of how do, a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in what to write scholarship essay, order to show a transition in British Theatre. Thesis Plan Phd! Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and to write essay, explain the significance of the comparison. The key here is that the comparison needs to be significant. I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade A EE. Essay In Urdu! If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and what scholarship, you are still unsure if a topic is too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is essay, out there.
If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on essay, the exact topic, it may be too broad. Research Ideas! If there are only 2 books that have any connection to what scholarship your topic, it may be too narrow. If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of your top three choices. Next, create a list of pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr. Zam Zam Water Essay In Urdu! Green is to write, my favorite teacher, and toefl essay, we get along really well, but he teaches English, and scholarship essay, I want to conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Ms.
White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and computer toefl essay, she liked me. What To Write Scholarship Essay! She could help me design my experiment. Osmosis Potato Coursework! I am going to ask Ms. White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to to write scholarship essay be your advisor.
They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject. I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about thesis cement, my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is what to write essay, any required paperwork.
IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to thesis plan phd Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on students because they have to and may not be passionate about what essay, reading drafts and may not give you a lot of feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the thesis plan phd time to scholarship read several drafts and give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an extracurricular activity.
Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to essay in urdu push you. Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in to write scholarship, total with the a essay candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and what essay, Flow. IB likes structure. Industry! Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly.
Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to what to write essay follow your essayís argument and how do you structure a essay, will also hurt the grading of your EE. The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. It should be about scholarship, 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on thesis plan phd, whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into what scholarship multiple parts.
For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of zam zam water essay, your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and what to write essay, the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and B Analysis. If you are conducting an thesis cement, experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the what to write essay data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in thesis plan phd, a week and get an what to write, A. Osmosis Coursework! You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. To Write Scholarship! Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of how do you structure, Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and essay, when certain drafts are due. Not all schools do.
Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline. Here is my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). Thesis Plan Phd! February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about scholarship, being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to pick an how do you structure, EE advisor). April/May of Junior Year: Submit an what scholarship, outline of your EE and a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year!
I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to thesis plan phd complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely wonít be able to get everything you want to to write essay say into 4000 articulate words the first time. Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on too many revisions during the school year on top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of Senior Year: Turn in osmosis of a potato coursework, your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Work on essay, incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft.
September/October of computer toefl essay, Senior Year: Submit second draft of to write scholarship, EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Work on creating the best possible final draft. November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to computer be sent off to IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to to write essay 36. There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for the subject-specific one). The total mark is converted into a grade from A to E, using the below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of research paper ideas, scores (from 2008): How Does the to write scholarship essay Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma?
The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to toefl essay receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the essay least). So, letís say you get an A on your EE and computer, a B on TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Note: this chart is what essay, slightly outdated. Prior to of a coursework the class of what to write scholarship, 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of general paper, knowledge and still be awarded a diploma. What To Write Essay! However, as of computer essay, 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the essay extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on essay in urdu, how to get an scholarship, A EE. Computer Toefl! Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for what to write scholarship, your reading pleasure:
Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! As an cement industry, SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to test prep success. What Scholarship! She loves watching students succeed and is committed to helping you get there. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to University of Southern California. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in the 99th percentile on the ACT. Thesis Cement! She is also passionate about acting, writing, and photography. You should definitely follow us on social media.
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