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Self-Acceptance is the Key to a Healthier Self-Image | Psych Central
bss engineer resume BlueCross BlueShield of South Carolina. Network expertise tunisie. LCC - A Tech Mahindra Company. Turn-Key Project Management. Telecom expert, site manager. Telecom Infrastructure Engineer TI/CW. Please log in to see contact information!
Mohammed Fouad M. Abed El-hamid. Full name Mohammed Fouad Mohammed Abed El-hamid. Experience 3-5 Years. Marital status Single. Military Service Postponed. Permanent Address 5 Bassata St., El mahata St., Sohag City, Sohag, Egypt. Temporary Address 16 Saad A. Self. Gaber St., Ain Shams St., Ain Shams, Cairo. Home phone +2093 2346356. Mobile Phone +20149381010 OR +20127184242.
Ability to Fast Learning and cope with new technology. Outstanding ability to work under pressure. Telecom Egypt (S.A.E) The largest fixed line provider in the Middle East and Africa. Job title BSS Engineer. Divind And Classification Essays. Tasks Job Descriptions. 1- O M for Huawei BTS CDMA2000. 2- Coordination with Telephony Networks, switching, Transmission and self essay, other engineers for essays on changes land integration of respective products with CDMA BSS. 3- Configuration of DCN for self acceptance NMS and essay talking whispers, handle TT from OMC.
4- Troubleshooting and fault rectification in the BSS. The Egyptian Telephony Co. QuickTel OR Now Alkan Networks. Operation Maintenance of Etisalat Misr EOT Project in Upper Egypt, Swapping of Vodafone Egypt Ericsson to Huawei plus its Corrective Maintenance Telecom Alarms Only Project. Job title F.M (Field Maintenance) Senior Engineer. Tasks Job Descriptions. Acceptance Essay. 2- Preventive maintenance for 70 Sites during 3 months round cycle. 3- Preventive maintenance for BSC monthly round cycle plus to follow up the essays evil dowry, installation of self acceptance essay, Sohag BSC (GBH17) with Rollout Teams. 4- Corrective maintenance for 70 sites (Etisalat) 60 sites (Vodafone Only Telecom alarms) during 24 hours / day, 7 days / week.
5- O M for Huawei BTS BTS3012, BTS3006C, BTS3900, Huawei NodeB BTS3812,DBS3800, Huawei Transmission Systems Huawei Microwave (RTN Optix 620) Metro 1000, NEC Microwave Pasolink V4 Neo, Alcatel Microwave (LSY), NE40 Router Media Gateway and divind, BSC6000 R8 in accordance with manufacture maintenance procedure. 6- O M for uninterruptible DC Power Systems (Rectifiers, Batteries, etc. ) in accordance with manufacture maintenance procedure. 7- Send daily, weakly, and monthly reports and Record definition data for all sites. Administration Management Responsibilities. 9- Monitor analyze corrective maintenance history of sites to eliminate repetitive alarms and improve site performance network availability. 10- Update site file with all relevant information and self, use the ias essay syllabus, site file as a reference prior to performing a PM or CM action.
11- Follow up all the technical procedures issued by the operations manager and Provide recommendations when necessary. Self. 12- Handle the Troubles Tickets (TT) from word NOC. 13- Lead the Engineers and Technicians Team to self acceptance achieve our duties fast as possible. 14- Handle the essay, Corrective Preventive Maintenance of the site. 15- Handle the BTS BSC's Alarms (Power, Environmental, and All Telecom Activities) insite.
Tools Testing Equipments. AlBabtain Le Blanc Egypt for telecom equipment. Turn key for Etisalat 3rd GSM license in Egypt (Acquisition, construction RF). Acceptance Essay. Turn Key for Mobinil GSM. Job title Telecommunications Engineer. Tasks Job Descriptions. 1- Supervision on Installation, commissioning integration of Huawei BTS SDH and ias essay syllabus, Microwave. 2- Monitor existing LAN/WAN, provide technical support troubleshoot LAN/WAN problem. Trade for Economic Development (TED Egypt) (S.A.E) (One of the greatest Financial Investment Company in Egypt besides, VIP Persons work in Financial and Consulting services) Job title IT Network Engineer. Tasks Job Descriptions. Self. 1- Networks installation and counts, hardware configurations Network racks, cabling, and Hardware install for acceptance essay the network adapters, switches, UPS equipments.
2-Hardware installation and configuration IBM Servers (AD, DNS, DHCP), IBM, Acer and HP Computers, HP Printers, network site planning. And Classification Essays. 3- Troubleshooting all the Hardware including computers, laptops, servers, Fax Machines, and Copy-cycle Machines. 4- Installing and acceptance essay, Maintaining of ADSL Routers. 5-Helpdesk and solving the users problems. 6-Administration Operation of CCTV system on WAN LAN. JELECOM for Communications Systems. Job title Installations Maintenance Engineer. Tasks Job Descriptions.
1-Installation Maintenance PABX, Fax Machines and VoIP. Essays. 2-Installation of CCTV and Fire Alarm systems. High School Degree. High School (Thanawia Amma) Elshaid Abed El-menam Raiad in Sohag. Degree in High School 92% University Graduation Project. College Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University.
Degree B.Sc. Electrical Engineering 2005. Major Communications Electronics Engineering. General Grade Good. Graduation Project Microcontroller Applications Digital Talking Multimeter EEPROM Programmer Design Hardware Software. Project Grade Excellent.
M.Sc in Wireless Telecommunications focused on 4G LTE in Progress. Working toward Project Management Professional (PMP) Certificate. -Strong knowledge in Mobile Communications (GSM, 3G). Acceptance. -Good Knowledge in OSS and NMS. -Good knowledge in Switching and SS7 in addition to not bad in UNIX system. Divind. -Knowledge in Microwave Links and different Transmission Systems. -Well Knowledge in ADSL Technology, DSLAM, and ISP. -Knowledge and Practical training in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and its Protocols (IP, TCP/UDP). -Capability to set up and maintain Routing Network Security. -Designing and Managing the acceptance essay, LAN and WAN networks within an organization. -Choosing the hardware and software the essay, organization uses as well as the introduction of acceptance, new systems and ias essay syllabus, equipment. Training Program from Telecom Egypt Co. (Training Center in Naser City, from Mar. 7th to Mar. 18th 2010) in following Systems. Optical Fiber cables Operation Maintenance. Self Acceptance Essay. CDMA2000 Networks and Practical training in Core Network. Wi-Max and its usage in Access network. Satellite VSAT Communications and Practical training in Satellite Network.
BTS Hardware Introduction BTS Software Configuration.
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(Guidelines for acceptance essay Pre-OT, PT, and PA students) As part of the primary application, most physician assistant programs, and many physical therapy and occupational therapy programs, require applicants to submit a personal essay, personal statement, or personal narrative (each term refers to essays in the land, the same thing). The personal essay can be thought of as the self interview before the interview, or almost a substitute for the interview for programs that don't offer or require one. The average personal essay runs between 600 and 750 words, give or take, with the essays land by william upper end of that range being more common (or the equivalent in characters, which is how Central Application Services tend to measure things - around 4000 to 5000 characters, including spaces). Self. It is important you compose an essay characterized by both conciseness as well as an effective level of detail and specificity. You will need to be selective and very pointed with what you choose to write about, and what you decide to describe in more detail or less detail. The guidelines on this page can help you with these choices. Establishing your credibility with admission committees. Your transcript and GPA are meant to establish your academic credibility, as someone who manages your time well, has developed the skills to do well in challenging courses, and who follows through on commitments. Your personal essay, on the other hand, can help establish your credibility as someone who: has thoroughly researched your chosen career field has undergone a thoughtful process of self-assessment in choosing the profession, understands and essay whispers, can articulate their personal connection with the field, and is 100% devoted to pursuing a career in the field has worked hard to develop the temperament and maturity, the desire to keep learning, and the personal and professional skills, necessary to function well in graduate school and in clinical settings and who possesses the essay ability to effectively, professionally, and coherently communicate ideas in writing.
As another dimension of credibility that should be displayed in your essay, remember that within the essays education dowry health fields the focus is always on providing excellent service to patients; on the caregiver-patient relationship; on self acceptance essay effective rapport-building and communication within that relationship; on working effectively with other healthcare professionals on on my aim in life behalf of acceptance, your patient; and on patient advocacy. Some aspect of mba essay word, this patient-centric approach should play a role in your personal essay. In other words, not to put too fine a point on acceptance it, but it's not all about essays aim in life what the profession can do for you (though certainly you want to essay, find your career personally fulfilling), it's about the patient. Putting the personal in life personal essay. Personal statements can take many different forms in terms of both style and content. It is self acceptance essay a personal essay because it describes how your experiences, values, and sensibilities, and your witnessing of essays on my aim in life, others' experiences through shadowing and acceptance, hands-on experience, build and grow your personal connection with the particular field, and your desire to serve the needs of mba essay, other people through your work as a healthcare professional within the field. In your personal essay, you want to be able to describe how and why you yourself were summoned to this profession . Generic reasons such as I want to help people are valid on self essay the face of it, but you need to add depth and dimension to them, personalize them. Essays On My Life. The ideas above and below on this page are meant to help you do that. Reflect on acceptance your shadowing and hands-on patient / client experiences. What did you learn about the profession or healthcare in general?
What did you learn about others and yourself? How did the interaction impact you personally ? How did it make you feel? What thoughts came to mba essay word counts, you? What skills and essay, which of your personal qualities came into syllabus, play? How did the patient respond, and how did the moment affect them? It is self a privilege to witness the struggles, suffering, and progress of talking whispers, other people. You want to do their experiences justice in your descriptions of them and responses to them as you write your essay . Self Essay. Free-write responses to the above. Then read and on changes in the by william, reflect on what you have written, and try to self, describe how and why you yourself were summoned to this profession . Don't strive for perfect writing at this point; you are still in the discovery stage of writing. It is also a personal essay because something of your personality should come through, which is another good and productive aspect of drafting the essay. Syllabus. You also want to project the self acceptance kind of ias essay, ethos or temperament that any effective healthcare professional should possess. (If you don't know exactly what ethos and temperament consist of, look up those words!) Stylistically, it is common practice to write the personal statement from the first person (I / me) perspective.
This is acceptance your opportunity to tell admission committees the essays education social dowry three or four most important things about yourself and self acceptance essay, your preprofessional experience. A personal essay is not merely a résumé in paragraph form. Instead, admission committees are interested to see your ability to essays on changes land cronon, assess your own experiences and draw conclusions from them about your goals, skills, and attributes; your ability to learn from your experiences; perhaps your dedication to learning from your mistakes, or your willingness to acceptance essay, challenge your own preconceptions; your ability to essays dowry, effectively assess your goals and your reasons for pursuing them; and, equally important, your ability to convey this information in a coherent, professional, yet personable manner. If you decide to incorporate a relevant personal experience into your essay, avoid including details that are too personal, or overly gratuitous. You don't want to be off-putting or show a lack of good judgment. Program-specific essay information.
Usually, applicants write one essay that they submit to acceptance, many or perhaps even all of the programs to which they are applying. It is syllabus uncommon, and not generally recommended, to write a different essay for each program, nor is it possible to do so through the self essay central application services (CAS). The only exception is noted below, in relation to directed essays with custom questions. Consult CAS FAQs and program websites for essay requirements and submission processes. There are dozens of ias essay, non-CAS programs, and each will have its own essay submission process.
For CAS programs: OTCAS FAQs - Click Personal Statement PTCAS FAQs - Click Essay CASPA FAQs - Click Narrative (Personal Statement) Information As part of the primary application, some programs require that you submit responses to a directed essay or custom questions posed by the program instead of or in addition to self acceptance, the general essay you'll submit to all programs. Therefore there's a good chance you'll need to write two or more different essays. In some instances you may need to write responses to custom questions largely from scratch, but often you can pull content and ideas from your general essay and blend them into your responses to custom questions. Custom questions often ask applicants to write about how their goals and values align with the program's mission statement or statement of education evil, values. If so, you might incorporate values and terminology from these statement into your essay. Many programs ask applicants to submit a brief autobiographical essay, sometimes explicitly asking applicants not to talk about their career choice. It is neither feasible nor desirable to acceptance essay, attempt a through autobiography in a page or two. There are many ways to approach this project. For example, you could try to judiciously identify one or two defining moments from your life and use them as a brief autobiographical lens which offers insight into mba essay word, who you are, your values, a defining characteristic, or otherwise conveys something interesting about you. Another example: you could write about a challenge you overcame and how that growth experience has subsequently shaped you and your life. Again, there are many approaches, but simply writing paragraphs of self acceptance, places and essays evil, dates in self acceptance your life probably won't suffice.
Research your programs to determine essay requirements well ahead of time. Plan accordingly, and allot enough time to draft essays in a non-hurried fashion. Talking Whispers. Pre-PT If you are applying to PTCAS programs, note that the central application requires that your personal essay be written PTCAS allows programs to require responses to school-specific (custom) questions if they choose. Applicants are automatically notified of custom questions during the application process. For additional details, read the PTCAS FAQ, School-specific Questions. Check program sites ahead of time to learn whether any of your PTCAS or non-PTCAS programs require responses to essay, custom questions either as part of the primary / initial application or as part of syllabus, a secondary / supplemental application. CASPA allows programs to require responses to school-specific custom questions. Acceptance Essay. Information about custom questions, if any for your programs, is found within the Program Materials section of the CASPA application.
Check program sites ahead of time to learn whether any of your CASPA or non-CASPA programs require responses to custom questions either as part of the primary / initial application or as part of a secondary / supplemental application. Pre-OT Check program sites ahead of time to learn whether any of your OTCAS or non-OTCAS programs require responses to custom questions either as part of the primary / initial application or as part of a secondary / supplemental application. If so, you will likely submit directed essay responses directly to the program, while submitting a general essay through OTCAS (assuming you are applying to essays on my life, one or more OTCAS programs). Some programs may also require that you submit written responses to additional questions during a secondary or supplemental application process , once you have submitted the primary application (whether through the CAS or directly to the program itself for non-CAS programs). In these cases, applicants can sometimes pull content or ideas from their master essay and customize them according to secondary application questions. Other times, secondary application questions may need to self, be written from scratch, but should be drafted with the same care and professionalism as the personal essay itself. While some programs place more emphasis on the essay than others, you must always consider the essay, and any other written responses, to be an integral part of your application. For some programs, the essay is the interview before the interview. For programs without interviews, the syllabus essay can take on even greater significance.
Once you have submitted your application(s), double-check with the CAS itself as well as with non-CAS programs to confirm that your application is self complete. Important: Whether you are communicating with an administrative assistant, a receptionist, a faculty member, or an admissions representative, always be perfectly polite and professional in every interaction, with everyone. Not only is essays on my life such conduct critical in self essay terms of your own developing professionalism, but we know of applicants whose application has been put in the Denied stack simply due to a single presumptuous or rude phone or email interaction. Always have at least one full backup copy of the essay talking whispers latest draft of your essay, preferably two, saved on different devices , even in the earliest stages of brainstorming and writing. Investing 20 seconds in the short run to create a couple of master backups can save you hours or even weeks of misery trying to recreate what has been needlessly lost. We have seen applicants lose their entire completed essay because they did not create backups. As you write , save your document every couple of minutes, or set your word processor to auto-save every minute or two. Acceptance. Losing even 20 minutes of work is frustrating and talking, unnecessary. Before making major revisions , create a new version of the essay using the Save As feature, so that you can always go back to the earlier version if need be. Every time you are finished working for the time being , update your backups to the latest version of your master document - the draft-in-progress.
There is not one correct way to write or organize a personal essay. Self Acceptance Essay. Below are some guidelines and ideas to essays articles social, help you get started, and self essay, ease you into articles social evil, the writing process: Review the notes you took during clinical observation, and during pertinent volunteer and self acceptance essay, / or patient care experiences. Highlight a few moments which most helped build your knowledge and understanding of the profession, or your decision to pursue it. Jot down any personal experiences that informed your decision to pursue a career in healthcare in general, or your chosen field in particular. Review formal descriptions of word, your chosen field. Revisit websites of the professional organizations associated with your chosen field, and read how those already working in the profession describe it.
Reread the self essay Description Of The Profession section at the top of the HPPLC site for your field, be it OT, PT, or PA. Essays On Changes Land By William. Perhaps visit program websites and self essay, read their program philosophy or mission statements. On My. Doing so can give you a sense of what ideals and self, goals seem most important to them, which may in turn help you generate ideas, and mba essay word counts, even help clarify what is important to you as well. Acceptance. Important: Revisit the section, Putting the personal in personal essay. By making time to follow the writing guidelines there, you will develop ideas that could very well become the core of your essay. (Remember to save your notes periodically, and create backups.) Write down or word-process your thoughts with regard to each of the following questions, which often form the basis of articles evil, admission essays. For now, don't worry about sentence-level issues like punctuation, or about self acceptance writing things in essay format. Even a rough bulleted list in response to each question is fine. Essays Education Social Dowry. You're simply brainstorming ideas at this point. Why do I want to be an [OT / PT / PA]? What are the reasons I have specifically chosen to pursue [OT / PT / PA] instead of one of the hundreds of other possible healthcare careers? (Hint: be more specific than I want to help people. While this is a perfectly valid reason, it describes thousands of essay, different professions.) What specific steps have I taken to make this decision?
Have I shadowed in a variety of settings? - which kinds? (Remember that OTs, PTs, and in the by william cronon, PAs do practice in a wide variety of settings!) Additional questions you might consider: Have I discovered anything interesting or impactful through reading related professional journals in the library? What kind of paid or voluntary work have I done interacting directly with patients, clients, or others in need? Have I garnered experience working with or on behalf of self, underserved populations? Have I been meaningfully involved in a student organization? (Not mandatory - remember, these are simply brainstorming questions.) Remember to save your notes periodically, and create backups. Assessing and recounting your preprofessional experiences. It is very common for applicants to incorporate anecdotal descriptions of a few clinical observation, direct patient care, and / or pertinent volunteer experiences into their personal essays. If you do so in a thoughtful, detailed manner, these experiences could even become the linchpins of your essay, and aim in life, can be an effective way to show admissions committees that you have seriously considered your chosen career path, why it is a good fit for you, and what you hope to someday offer your own patients or clients. Next then, look more closely at the experiences you highlighted in your notes, as suggested above. The key at essay, this point is to on my, assess these experiences, and incorporate additional details into your descriptions of acceptance, them. Review the essay talking whispers writing you did for the Putting the personal in personal essay section of this page. Self Acceptance Essay. If you have followed those guidelines, you already have a good start on what we suggest below.
If you have not yet done so, do it now. It won't take more than an word, hour or two and will help you tremendously as you draft your essay. In relation to the clinical observation experiences you highlighted in your notes, list the variety of skills, knowledge, personal attributes, and professional attributes exhibited by the professionals you shadowed. What did you learn about the profession that you did not know prior to shadowing? How did your experiences refine your impressions of the profession, and the kind of professional you wish to become? How did what you observe confirm your interest in self acceptance pursuing the profession? Add these lists, thoughts, and ideas to your essay notes. Read through the notes you jotted down in response to the preparation questions and essays articles social evil dowry, see if any of those thoughts can lend support or detail to the recounting of your experiences. Do the same kind of assessment In relation to self essay, the most impactful of the patient care and/ or volunteer experiences you highlighted in your notes.
List the divind and classification skills, knowledge, personal attributes, and professional attributes that you yourself have begun to develop, or have strengthened. Add these lists, thoughts, and ideas to your essay notes. Next, in your essay notes, try writing out each experience as a kind of self essay, story - a narrative - that you are telling the reader. (Remember to divind and classification essays, save your notes periodically, and create backups.) Writers often find it easiest to write long and edit down. At this stage, write out all your thoughts and ideas without worrying about length. You can edit things down later. Self Acceptance. Applicants will often be as specific in their essay as, . For instance, when shadowing an [OT / PT / PA] at such and such a place, I observed the [OT / PT / PA] treat a patient who was in essay talking this or that circumstance, and interact with the patient in this or that manner, and self acceptance essay, here is what happened, this was the outcome. As part of the essay whispers narrative, applicants will often fold in their assessment of the experience (as described above): From this experience, I learned this and that. or This experience helped me realize / decide this and acceptance essay, that.
Again, this level of specificity can greatly enhance a personal statement. On My Aim In Life. It can reduce the chances that admission committees will have to read between the lines and guess what you mean, or, worse, assume that you really have not thought much about acceptance your goals and your reasons for pursuing them. It is certainly not mandatory that you include detailed narratives accounts of your experiences in your essay. Talking. Many applicants find that doing so helps them demonstrate their interest in self acceptance essay the profession, and their preparedness for embarking upon ias essay syllabus the intensive formal training process. No matter how you choose to acceptance, present what you learned from your experiences, remember that vagueness and over-generalization are the essays aim in life enemies of self acceptance essay, a strong personal essay. The details matter. Assessing and recounting relevant personal experiences. In a fashion similar to essays aim in, that described above, you have the option to self acceptance, include in divind and classification your essay situations in your own life which, for example, taught you something important about acceptance life which you have found relevant to and classification, your career choice, taught you something about what does not so much interest you, or impacted you in other ways you think are directly pertinent to acceptance, your essay. For example, some applicants recount an and classification essays, experience which helped them develop a core value which then became important to their choice of career path, or which helped them earlier on develop an interest in helping others or working in healthcare. Some applicants recount their own experience receiving care from a PT or PA, or a grandparent's experience with an OT.
Remember that including pertinent personal experiences is simply one option, not a requirement. Important: If you decide to incorporate a personal experience into your essay, avoid including details that are too personal, or overly gratuitous. You don't want to be off-putting, or show a lack of good judgment. Congratulations! - if you have made it this far, you have undertaken some preparation and self acceptance essay, brainstorming, have added additional details, and now have what amounts to a rough draft of your essay. As always, save your notes again, and update your backups.
Now it's time to connect part to talking whispers, whole throughout your draft. In essay lingo, this is the acceptance essay process of creating coherence . Divind And Classification. If an essay is coherent it means it flows or progresses from self essay one paragraph to ias essay syllabus, another, one idea to another, one sentence to another in acceptance essay a way that makes sense to the reader. To gain a holistic sense of divind essays, your draft thus far, read it from top to bottom, including any ideas you noted as you read program websites and other resources during your preparation, as well as your answers to the brainstorming questions, and acceptance, the details you subsequently added. Identify the central ideas and education evil, themes, perhaps underlining or highlighting them. You will almost certainly see connections between different parts of acceptance, your notes. For example, you may find that one section or paragraph seems more focused on your initial decision to enter the health fields, while another section serves the purpose of explaining your discovery process, and how you confirmed your specific career path. Perhaps there are sentences or paragraphs focused on how you discovered what you are not interested in, and mba essay word counts, the reasons for that. Self Acceptance. Maybe part of what you've written so far seems to center on your own skill development and personality attributes. Articles Education Social Evil Dowry. Many different central ideas or themes could emerge. Review the information about establishing credibility with the admissions committee and make sure your essay generally reflects these ideas. Convert bullets and self, incomplete sentences into complete, grammatical thoughts.
See if there are lines you want to either expand into new paragraphs or layer into existing paragraphs, or into descriptions of your experiences, adding new details or moving in related content from elsewhere in the draft. Expand or contract different sections or paragraphs according to what seems most relevant to your essay, and in a manner which will draw in readers and help them understand you and your goals better. As you re-read your draft you will also undoubtedly find yourself deleting notes that seem redundant or less useful to include. Next, experiment with re-arranging the sections and / or paragraphs in different ways, to see what arrangement seems most coherent, offers the greatest impact, or follows the flow of your career decision process (it is not necessary to arrange your essay chronologically - doing so is simply one option among many). Once you have tentatively arranged the various parts of your draft in a way which seems effective, revise your paragraphs and add transitions so as to create coherence from one paragraph to the next, and one section to syllabus, the next. Avoid needless repetition or summaries.
Personal essays must be coherent and well-organized, but, unlike the classic essay format, the introduction of this particular kind of self acceptance essay, essay need not foreshadow the main points covered in the body. In fact, doing so usually detracts from the overall impact of what you've written simply because the essay is so brief to on my aim in, begin with. Similarly, unlike the essay classic essay format, your conclusion should probably not summarize. Doing so usually results in needless repetition, and isn't necessary since the reader would have just read the summarized information in the previous few paragraphs anyway. Summarizing in an essay this brief is also a waste of precious space which could be used to ias essay, convey additional new information to the admissions committee. It is often easier to write the introduction and conclusion last, once you have a sense of the overall content and tone of the body. In fact, once you have a solid draft of the body written (i.e., once you have gone through a drafting process similar to that described previously on this page), you may find that you can actually transform two of your existing paragraphs into self essay, your introduction and conclusion, rather than writing an introduction and mba essay, conclusion from scratch. With this method, almost any paragraph conveying a specific idea, theme, point of self-assessment, or related anecdote could become your opening or closing paragraph. Acceptance Essay. Experiment with moving different paragraphs into the position of introduction and see if one seems like a compelling way to draw in the reader.
Do the same with the conclusion and see if any of your paragraphs can stand on their own as a way to draw the essay to and classification, a satisfying conclusion, leaving the reader with a positive impression of you or with an interesting final insight into you or your goals. Acceptance Essay. Or you might also find that one of your paragraphs is particularly representative of the themes or ideas conveyed throughout the essay, and could serve as a kind of wrap up without actually being redundant. If you do in essays life fact have paragraphs that seem able to self acceptance, become your introduction and conclusion then sometimes just rearranging a sentence or two, or adding one or two additional sentences at the end of what has become your intro, can create a segue into the body of the essay. Similarly, sometimes adding a sentence or two as a parting thought to the end of what has become your concluding paragraph can serve as a sufficient outro, and bring the on changes in the land by william essay to a satisfying conclusion. If you feel doing the above doesn't seem adequate, or makes the essay less coherent, another option is to experiment with a one or two sentence conclusion; for example, re-expressing your enthusiasm for the field or thanking the admissions committee for considering your application. (This method doesn't work as well with introductions.) Before resorting to this method, try the essay other ideas described above, which often result in the strongest introductions and conclusions. That said, there is nothing wrong with an outro which consists of ias essay syllabus, just a sentence or two. Revise Into A Refined And Complete Draft. At this stage your essay no longer looks like a set of notes, and you instead have a coherent and more or less complete draft. Acceptance Essay. Below you will find important reminders about the content of your essay, common mistakes to avoid, and tips to help you produce the most professional, refined final draft possible. Avoid needless redundancy.
Don't repeatedly state the on my same thought, sentence, or phrase unless there is a valid stylistic or rhetorical reason for doing so. Remember that vagueness and self essay, over-generalization are the enemies of a strong personal essay. Ias Essay Syllabus. Specificity is key. Avoid generalities and clichés like, I am very passionate about. I love working with people. or I have always wanted to be an [OT / PT / PA]. Such generalities and cliche's tell admission committees nothing about you.
Hence, these language choices can give the impression that you have not thought in detail about your reasons for pursuing the profession, or not done a thorough assessment of the self essay specific experiences and attributes that will enable you to land by william cronon, succeed in graduate school and become an excellent practitioner in essay the profession. You may indeed feel passionate about pursuing the essays social profession (in fact, if you don't, you should be pursuing something else!), but you need to demonstrate how the passion developed, and how you have channeled that energy into your preparation. Do so by using specific language to describe how your shadowing, patient care experience, volunteer work, academics, and acceptance essay, so on, clearly reflect your devotion to essay whispers, the profession. And you have not always wanted to be a [PT / OT / PA]. Self Acceptance. It is more effective to explain how you actually developed your interest in the field. Avoid oversimplifying the profession.
You know enough about it to have decided to pursue it, but there is mba essay much you don't know. Self Acceptance. That's okay because the essays purpose of the essay is not to define the profession or explain everything you know about acceptance it. Essays On Changes Land By William. Relatedly, remember that OTs, PTs, and PAs practice in a wide variety of self acceptance, settings, so be careful to divind essays, avoid falling into a clichéd or two-dimensional understanding of the given field. Self Essay. For example, PTs are not just sports rehab. They can also work in wound care, burn recovery, stroke rehab, prosthetics, and essays education dowry, many other settings. Acceptance. The same idea holds true for OT and PA. The name or title of the profession, be it occupational therapist, physical therapist, or physician assistant, is not a proper noun and so need not be capitalized. Essays On My Aim In. It is fine to use the abbreviation - OT, PT, PA - to refer to self acceptance, either the field or to someone practicing within the field (i.e., Later that summer, I shadowed another PA, this time in the emergency room of Center Hospital. Counts. Or, . the ever-expanding PT profession. ). Alternating in some fashion between the full tern and its abbreviation is a good way to avoid sounding repetitious.
Note to pre-PA students: The construct, physician assistant, tends to be fairly standard. You might also see physician's assistant (with an apostrophe s) or physicians assistant (plural s), but these are used less commonly. Acceptance. In any case, be sure to use the same construct throughout your essay, and mba essay word, double-check that you don't accidentally use more than one way of referring to the profession. Self. Maintain patient privacy when describing clinical observation and any direct patient care experience. Essays. It is perfectly fine to describe symptoms, treatments, and interactions with patients, but you should never use a person's real name. Instead, you can refer to them using pronouns (he, she, they). if this seems cumbersome or confusing, it is also standard practice to self acceptance essay, substitute a made up name for the real name if it will help your writing flow better; for example, My very first experience offering direct patient care was treating an land cronon, athlete - I'll call him Ted - for heatstroke. Acceptance. . For additional patient privacy information visit HIPPA - Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Your essay should be perfectly free of typos and spelling / grammatical errors. Some admission committees stop reading after two or three such mistakes, and literally drop the offending essay onto the No pile.
Professionalism is crucial. Just as college is ias essay syllabus a step up from self acceptance high school, graduate school is a step (or two) up from your undergraduate degree. Some admission representatives have told us they stop reading a personal statement after the third mistake (whether spelling, typo, or grammar). Few things in life need to be perfect, or nearly so. The proofing of your final draft is one of them, because it speaks to your professionalism, care, and attention to detail. Use an life, automatic spell checker on your final draft.
Then, print a hardcopy and self acceptance, meticulously proofread it. Eliminate every single typo and spelling error, and every single grammatical error. * Scrutinize your essay for usage errors that a spell checking program will often miss; for example, mistakenly using weather instead of whether , ceratin instead of certain , affect instead of effect . You can also do a Find And Replace to see if you are over and classification using a certain word or phrase. If you find this to essay, be the case, replace some instances with a different way of saying the same thing. You can also search for articles education hard to self essay, spot typos. For example, to find places where you have accidentally inserted an on my, extra space between words, in self acceptance the Find box hit the spacebar twice, in essays education social dowry Replace hit it once, and click Replace All. Acceptance. When you think it is essays aim in perfectly proofed, set your essay aside for a couple of days, and acceptance essay, then proofread it again with fresh eyes, slowly and word, meticulously. * For this particular specialized document, instead of consulting IUB Writing Tutorial Services staff or documentation for feedback related to the actual content or style of your essay, you are best off first following the guidelines throughout this webpage. Then, once you have a pretty solid draft in process, you can meet with the acceptance HPPLC pre-OT / PT / PA advisor to essays on changes in the land by william cronon, discuss the content, level of self acceptance, detail, and organization / coherence of your draft. If you need help learning to identify and correct grammatical errors, feel free to ias essay, utilize Writing Tutorial Services.
However, WTS is not a proofreading service! They can help you learn to solve common grammatical problems, but professional programs want to see your own work , not the work of others. Having someone else proof your essay is not ethical, but getting help learning to spot and fix grammar issues is okay. Acceptance Essay. Again, for feedback related to the actual content or style of your personal essay, you are best off first following the guidelines throughout this webpage and then meeting with a HPPLC advisor if you'd like. Examples of helpful grammar sites: (Passive voice is not an error, but a stylistic choice. However, because it is less direct and less specific than active voice, passive voice is usually best avoided in personal essays.
At the above link, if you skip down to the Examples of Passive Voice section you will readily see how to find and easily eliminate it.) This information was prepared for ias essay syllabus Indiana University Bloomington students by the Health Professions and Prelaw Center. Please note that specific requirements and self, policies can change at any time without notice. Students are responsible for essays articles education dowry obtaining the most current information directly from application and testing services, and the schools and programs in which they have an interest. Refer to each program's web pages, bulletins, and self acceptance, other publications for the most current information.
Students are responsible for understanding degree course requirements, as well as other requirements, policies, and procedures related to word counts, the degree(s) they are pursuing; for enrolling in appropriate courses; for acceptance essay understanding IU policies/procedures; and for essays on my aim in following through properly with regard to all of the preceding.
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essay of blackmail The Crime of self acceptance essay, Blackmail: A Libertarian Critique. There is something deeply paradoxical about word, laws that criminalize blackmail. How is acceptance essay, it that, as Glanville Williams put it, two things that taken separately are moral and essay, legal whites together make a moral and legal black?  For the crime of blackmail involves the criminalization of two otherwise legal acts when they occur in combination- for example, the threat to disclose damaging information about another, and the offer to refrain from disclosing it for some valuable consideration. Were Alfred to self acceptance, (threaten to) disclose damaging information concerning Bi11's extramarital affairs, no offense recognized by law would be involved (even if there were something distasteful about such gossip); were Alfred to ask Bill for $5000, again there would be no contravention of any proper law (even if it displayed a degree of essays articles dowry, chutzpah). But were Alfred to threaten Bill that he would disclose information concerning Bill's extramarital affairs unless Bill paid him $5000, his two-part act would – under current laws-constitute the self acceptance, crime of blackmail. Why should the on my life, conjunction of such otherwise legal acts have an entirely different legal status?  The paradox is heightened when we consider the self acceptance, reverse situation. Bill learns that Alfred is in possession of damaging information concerning him. He seeks Alfred out, and talking whispers, offers him $5000 to keep silent. If Alfred accepts Bill's offer, and subsequently keeps mum, he should not be held to have blackmailed Bill.
Why should the situation be different when Alfred approaches Bill, and tells him that his silence will cost $5000? This is the heart of the libertarian critique of blackmail laws, and in essay this essay I propose to ias essay syllabus, defend that critique against a number of arguments that have been advanced to justify them. Although my critique of self acceptance essay, such laws depends ultimately on my belief that criminal prohibitions are justified only when some material threat is posed to another (by means of force, fraud, or theft), my arguments here will show that various attempts to avoid or account for the paradox do not succeed, even on their own terms. Blackmail (along with other victimless crimes) should be decriminalized. [3,4] Some Definitional Preliminaries. Although standard instances of blackmail involve a threat to disclose damaging information if some monetary payment is not made, the essays aim in, range of possibilities is somewhat wider. Leo Katz, for example, suggests as alternative threats:
Pay me $10,000- or I will: cause some really bad blood at the next faculty meeting, . . . seduce your fianc, . Self. . . persuade your son that it is ias essay syllabus, his patriotic duty to volunteer for combat in Vietnam, . . Essay. . give your high-spirited, risk-addicted 19-year-old daughter a motorcycle for Christmas, hasten our father's death by leaving the Catholic church.  Demands as well as threats may vary: usually it is for money, but it could also be for sexual favors or some other valued consideration. And usually it is for the blackmailer's private and undeserved gain, though it need not be. Imagine, writes Eric Mack, that you can deter a factory owner from (safely) burning his plant to the ground (and thus thoroughly eliminating many employment opportunities) for the sake of destructive glee only by threatening to reveal his secrets. Essays On My Aim In. Or imagine a case in which one party, by legally permissible trickery and Underhanded dealing, acquired what another party truly deserves. Wouldn’t it be perfectly moral for the morally deserving party to blackmail the first party into transferring that valued good- especially if what was threatened was precisely the self essay, [revelation] of the on changes in the, trickery and underhandedness?  In this essay, however, our concern will be largely with paradigmatic informational blackmail in which money is sought for silence. Blackmail should not be confused with extortion. In the latter, a threat to do something that would otherwise be illegal is made in demanding something from another: If Charles threatens to break David's knees or burn down his house if David does not give him $5000, Charles is guilty of extortion, not blackmail, Extortion is properly considered illegal. Is There Really a Paradox of Blackmail? One might argue that there is nothing particularly paradoxical about blackmail.
George Fletcher, for one, claims that the supposed paradox is acceptance, not untypical of essays on changes land, many acts that are regarded as criminal: many good acts are corrupted by doing them for a price.  Fletcher instances bribery, prostitution, and payment for confessing to a crime. Self Essay. And Wendy Gordon notes that, our right to vote can neither be transferred gratuitously nor sold.  But are these plausible counter instances? The problem with bribery is that it fosters inappropriate motivations in those who are otherwise duty-bound to provide certain services. Word. Were bribes no more than tips for services- openly given and received- there would be nothing wrong with them. Acceptance. What makes bribery problematic is not the conjunction of service and money, but the fact that money given secretly becomes an incentive to forgo duty and/or to do it only when more is giver than one is essay whispers, contractually obliged to accept. Prostitution is a classic victimless crime and should not have been criminalized in the first place. The problem with paid-for confessions is that needy people- and not necessarily guilty people- will be induced into confessing to acceptance essay, offenses, with no guarantee that those who are convicted will be those who have offended. An offender may still be on the loose, and those paid to essays aim in, apprehend criminals will have no incentive to look for him. As for the right to vote, it could have been otherwise. The only acceptance reason that political votes (unlike votes in publicly traded corporations) cannot be sold is that a majority has agreed not to commodify them.
Blackmail and Other Commercial Transactions. At first blush, blackmail is like any other commercial transaction: Alfred has a product to sell (secrecy) that Bill wishes to buy. However, some writers have claimed that blackmailers differ significantly from other sellers since, unlike other sellers, they would give away their product were they not able to sell it.  Perhaps so, perhaps not!  In any case it is not easy to see any significance to the difference. Talking Whispers. For other sellers, perhaps, the acceptance essay, product to be sold represents all investment on essays, their part, and therefore something they would be unlikely to give away, whereas the incriminating information that the self, blackmailer possesses is much more likely to have been gained without significant investment. May be the difference lies in motivation, Wendy Gordon suggests that blackmail should be outlawed because the blackmailer acquires information for the sole purpose of obtaining money or advantage from the victim, and . . , has no intent or desire to publish the education evil dowry, information, except as an instrument toward this purpose. Self.  But why should the blackmailer's intent be of word, any interest to the law unless the conduct in question has independently infringed another's rights? It is not generally of legal concern why we conform our behavior to what the self essay, law allows or requires. Essay. Intent only becomes an issue once the self, law is broken. But since Alfred's disclosure of Bill's infidelities does not constitute conduct of word counts, a kind the law would ordinarily prohibit, it should not be of any legal interest to know why Alfred may or may not choose to disclose the information he has about Bill.  Scott Altman suggests a further difference: whereas in ordinary commercial transaction, both buyer and seller will be beneficiaries, in acceptance blackmail the primary beneficiary is the blackmailer.  But why should the person who buys silence not also be seen as benefiting from the transaction? He has purchased another's silence, something that presumably, benefits him. It is true that, antecedent to the blackmailer's approach, the blackmailee was not seeking to purchase the silence of others, but that was because he believed that his secret was safe, and did not need to be secured through purchase.
Blackmail and Coercion. Defenders of laws against blackmail often claim that blackmail is coercive: by threatening to disclose certain damaging information if Bill does not pay $5000, Alfred coerces Bill. Essay.  Or so it is said. However, the idea of acceptance essay, coercion cannot clearly be extended to such cases. In paradigm cases, Alfred coerces Bill into parting with $5000 if he tackles Bill and steals his wallet containing $5000, or if he puts a gun to Bill's head and threatens to pull the trigger should Bill refuse to hand over $5000. But if Alfred simply tells Bill that he will disclose his extramarital affairs unless Bill pays $5000, nothing is threatened except Bill's reputation. And one's reputation is not something one owns as one might own one's body or a piece of property. Whispers. Reputation is a form of social recognition to which one does not have a right as one might have a right to one’s property  Should Alfred spread the information without making any claim for money, he will have done nothing illegal. Why should it become illegal just because Alfred tells Bill that he will keep quiet if Bill pays him $5000? Perhaps the argument from coercion can be expressed as follows: The blackmailer's act is coercive because he proposes to reveal information that he is obligated not to disclose.  But this will not do either. Even if Alfred were obligated not to self essay, reveal the information, it would still not show the threat to reveal it to be blackmail; rather, it would be a coercive threat, for example, extortion. It would indeed be legally wrong for Alfred to reveal what he told Bill in confidence, but the threat to on my, disclose it unless Bill pays Alfred to keep quiet would be a legal wrong not because it is blackmail, but because it breached Alfred's contractual obligation to Bill.
But if there is no obligation for Bill to keep the damaging information to acceptance, himself, then and only then would there be no coercion involved in essays articles education making it known, Should Alfred accidentally find out about Bill's extramarital affairs, he is under no obligation at all regarding its disclosure.  Why, then, should his informing Bill that he will reveal what Bill has been up to be coercive? Maybe the argument is that Alfred acts coercively because he seeks to exact Bill's money without his consent. Self.  Although no literal gun is being pointed at essays, Bill's head, something else is- serious damage to his life, reputation, job prospects, or whatever- should he refuse to pay. This account, of self acceptance essay, course, would not work with cases in which Bill, on hearing that Alfred possesses (and is likely to ias essay, reveal) the information, seeks him out to offer him hush money, but perhaps the acceptance, supporter of blackmail laws may not mind cutting these cases adrift from the in the, scope of such legislation. Self. Once again, however, we need to remind ourselves of the disanalogy with the gunman. Absent monetary considerations, if the gunman pulls the trigger a legally significant wrong is education social evil, done to his victim, whereas, if Alfred spills the beans on acceptance, Bill's philandering no crime is committed. May be one could liken Alfred's act to essays articles education evil, that of Edward who, seeing Faye drowning, will not throw her a rope unless she agrees to acceptance essay, pay him $5000. Essays On My Aim In.  This is surely exploitative of Faye's situation, but is it coercive? Were Edward to acceptance essay, have pushed Faye into syllabus, the water in the first place, there would indeed be an self essay, argument for saying that the demand for $5000 was coercive; but ex hypothesi he did not, and so, given that he does not violate a legal obligation in not throwing a rope to her, it is hardly coercive for him to demand something for ias essay syllabus his assistance.  Bill's follies, likewise, are his own doing, and not the result of a set up by Alfred, and if Alfred has come into possession of self essay, information that could be Bill's undoing, may he not offer to withhold it on his own terms? Blackmail and Exploitation. Perhaps, as I suggested in the last paragraph, blackmail should be seen as exploitative. Ias Essay. That is, in blackmailing Bill, Alfred takes advantage of Bill's vulnerability. If so, should this justify its legal proscription?
Note, first of all, that the notion of exploitation is none-too-clear; it is, for example, used by Marxist writers to characterize ordinary capitalist labor relations: in making a profit, employers of self, labor are said to return to their employees less than the full value of their labor. Their vulnerable position (their need to eat, support families, and so forth) makes them vulnerable to such shortchanging. But even with a less expansive and essays land cronon, less tendentious understanding, there is a gap between exploiting another's vulnerabilities and doing something that should be considered illegal. If George exploits Harold's generosity to get a loan, or Ivan exploits John's poor management of essay, a rival business or even John's sudden and debilitating illness to gain a larger share of the market or to essays on my life, put John out of self, business, neither George nor Ivan have done anything illegal, however opportunistic they may have been. So, if Alfred exploits Bill's vulnerability to essays on changes in the by william cronon, make some extra money for himself, why should his act be proscribed by law? Blackmail and Privacy. It might be argued that blackmailers threaten a right one has to privacy. There is, it may be said, certain information about self acceptance, oneself over which one should have control. It is essays on changes, one's own business, and not the acceptance essay, business of others. If it is to be given out, it is appropriately given out only and classification if one has consented to essay, its being shared.
If others come by that information accidentally or because someone with whom one has shared it has violated confidentiality, that is too bad. The third party is not guilty of any wrongdoing in having or sharing the social evil, information. However, if the third party, realizing that one wanted to keep the information to oneself, now chooses to use it as leverage for self-enrichment then that person is violating the privacy rights of self acceptance, another no less improperly than the person who taps one's telephone or bugs one's house or looks in one's personal files. But there are significant differences between these various cases. The person who taps one's phone or bugs one's house or looks at one's files has undoubtedly violated one's property rights in some way- has trespassed, at least. Even private detectives are limited in what they may be permitted to do to obtain information. But the divind and classification, argument from privacy would outlaw private detectives altogether, just because they make a business of getting information that others want to keep secret.  The blackmailer need not violate any so-called privacy rights  to obtain his information: a sharp eye, an open ear, and a little advantageous positioning may be all that is necessary. Were the potential blackmailer simply to pass on the information to other interested parties no legal offense would be involved.
Why should that change if the self, blackmailer seeks to articles social, take advantage of what he knows by seeking cash for silence? Even after their so-called victims have paid up, blackmailers sometimes come looking for more. The damaging information after all, may not have passed out of their heads or hands. It may therefore be argued that the self acceptance essay, only way to keep blackmailers from repeatedly approaching those who have bought their silence is to ias essay syllabus, ban blackmail altogether.  But repeated attempts at acceptance, blackmail maybe prevented much more easily if blackmail is decriminalized. Ias Essay. All that is self acceptance, required is that blackmailers sign a contract with the blackmailee that stipulates the blackmailers' permanent silence in return for a payment of $X. Then, if the blackmailer breaks his agreement (something he can do even when blackmail is illegal), he can be held liable for whatever damages might be stipulated or otherwise determined by essays on changes in the land by william cronon the courts. In such cases, there will be something legally wrong about repeated blackmail that does not apply to the first occasion. What is more, to acceptance, outlaw blackmail in the first instance because blackmail demands may be repeated in the future is not to punish someone for a past crime done but for a (potential) future crime- hardly what we have in mind when we speak of criminal justice.
If this were allowed to be a general legal principle, moreover, we would have to entrench in the law the on changes in the land by william cronon, concept of preventive detention, for all members of groups statistically over represented in the criminal category. In any case, the argument from repeated blackmail would hold in only a limited number of cases- those in which there was some likelihood that a further approach would be made or that the agreement would be breached. It would hardly provide a general argument against blackmail. The Consequences of Blackmail. Most who favor blackmail prohibition do so on non-consequentialist grounds. They see something inherently problematic about the transaction that constitutes blackmail.
Nevertheless, perhaps to boost such arguments, they often supplement them with observations about the effects that decriminalizing blackmail would probably have. Richard Epstein, for example, suggests that were blackmail to be legalized, it would encourage the formation of corporations such as his hypothetical Blackmail, Inc., an organization devoted to ferreting out embarrassing (or worse) information on self acceptance, people and then blackmailing them to have it kept quiet. Divind Essays.  Assuming the self acceptance essay, profitability of such an enterprise, a blackmailee might find himself the target of numerous independent approaches and, to meet the financial obligations incurred by land cronon this, might be led (or even encouraged) into self acceptance, committing crimes to pay for his chronic secrecy need. But are such fears well founded? Epstein does not ever show that a world without anti-blackmail laws would spawn a Blackmail, Inc. And even were it to divind, do so, it would not provide a sufficiently strong reason to outlaw it or blackmail. The tastelessness or unseemliness of a social institution is self essay, not a sufficient reason to ban it or enterprises that exploit it. We would have as good reason to ban malicious gossip or The National Inquirer . And the social pressure that might lead a person into committing crimes to pay for secrecy would not differ substantially from the social pressure to be somebody or impress others, motivations that may be just as likely to lead people to commit crimes. 
A more limited consequentialist argument has been suggested by Jennifer Gerarda Brown.  She suggests that were blackmail in cases of mba essay word, incriminating information legalized, there would likely be a reduction of crime. The criminally inclined would face the self acceptance essay, real possibility that they would have to split the profits of mba essay word counts, their criminality or otherwise pay to cover up their crimes, and self essay, such costs would constitute a significant deterrent to criminal activity. But this is actually an essay, argument in favor of legalizing blackmail, not prohibiting it. As we noted at the beginning, there is a real difficulty about legally differentiating payer- initiated from seller-initiated silence. Essay. If Bill learns that Alfred possesses damaging information that he might be inclined to disclose to others, and offers Alfred $5000 to keep quiet, it is hard to argue that Alfred has either coerced or exploited Bill, or that the ias essay syllabus, transaction should be outlawed. The awkwardness of allowing such a differentiation of cases has led some writers to develop strategies for keeping them together. Thus Scott Altman has claimed: Evidentiary and self essay, definitional problems with payer initiation can undermine any power it has to separate coercive from non-coercive transactions. Some bargains appear payer-initiated because the payer initially suggests the deal. But the payer might only essays learn of the other party's intent to self, reveal the embarrassing information after that party discloses this intent in order to syllabus, elicit an self, offer or payment.
Because this case cannot easily be distinguished from essays on changes in the land cronon, genuine payer initiation, permitting payer initiation can insulate paradigmatic blackmail cases from punishment. Self.  Similar arguments used to be employed against all forms of essay whispers, euthanasia, lest it should become a cloak for murder. The solution, were we to persist in outlawing seller-initiated silence, would be essentially the same: the development of procedures that would allow- for most cases- clearer discriminations to be made. Acceptance. But since we do not accept the arguments against blackmail laws in the first place, this rescue is unnecessary. Blackmail and Victimization.
Defenders of blackmail laws persist in calling the blackmailee a victim. Once seen as such, blackmailers are easily tarred with wrongdoing. Yet this characterization trades on essay whispers, the conflation of acceptance, two distinct senses of victim. On one account, a victim is anyone who is damaged or harmed by essays on changes some event: there are earthquake victims and victims of disease. Blackmailees might be seen as victims or potential victims in this sense. Self Acceptance Essay. The information possessed by the blackmailer, if disclosed, will damage them in on my aim in some way. And one might argue that if one kind of damage has been averted it has been averted only at a cost, and - at a stretch - that one is a victim of circumstances that have a cost.
But the term victim may also be used in essay a more restricted sense - as when we speak of someone being victimized. Here we have in mind someone whose rights have been violated, someone who has been illegally wronged by another. Is the person who is on my aim in, blackmailed a victim in this second sense? It would seem not: if Alfred were to disclose the damaging information about self acceptance, Bill no right of Bill's would have been violated. That he should refrain from essays education social dowry, doing what he had a right to do in exchange for some monetary consideration does not change the matter. (29) Those who persist in speaking of blackmailees as victims can mean victim only in the first sense. Yet it is only in the second sense, that victims might have some legitimate legal claim against others. The libertarian conviction is acceptance, not simply that some instances of blackmail should not be criminalized but that it should never be criminalized.
The libertarian therefore needs to confront some hard cases. (a) Suppose Ken tells Leon that if Leon does not pay him $1000, he will report that Leon is guilty of a crime, which he is essays education social evil dowry, already suspected of committing. The libertarian would not forbid Ken from making this demand, or, if Leon does not pay, he would not prevent Ken from making the false report. Ken has free speech rights, including the right to speak falsely about another. True, the police-and courts-may subsequently accept Ken's word about Leon, so that Leon is unjustly punished, but if they do that, that injustice is on them for failing thoroughly to investigate Ken's report. As noted above, any damage to Leon 's reputation is not damage to something over which Leon has any rights. (30) While the foregoing is perfectly compatible with libertarian theorizing, it will strike many as repugnant.
After all, the law underlies the social order, even our very civilization. Self Acceptance Essay. If one may with impunity place a spoke in the whee1 of justice in this manner, it bespeaks ill of the libertarian philosophy. But there is a solution to this quandary, even apart from the radical substitution of libertarian for statist courts. Essays Life. (31) And that is to pay or tie up witnesses so that they are contractually obligated to tell the truth upon self acceptance essay, pain of contract violation. One of the syllabus, great injustices of our present court system is that witnesses are in effected drafted into testifying, and, so, for that matter, are jurors. It would be legally illicit to self essay, bear false witness under such circumstances. But, contrary to Altman, the impropriety would then be one of extortion, or contract violation, not blackmail. b) What if Michael learns that Nicholas has embezzled $l million from his company, but suggests to syllabus, Nicholas that for a payment of $56,000 he will not report it?
Surely, one might argue, Michael has a duty to report what Nicholas has done, and any attempt to acceptance essay, profit from an essays education social evil, agreement not to reveal it should be criminalized. Although some libertarians might balk at cases of this kind, it is certainly open to others - myself included - to argue that whatever moral duty might be claimed to report the crimes of acceptance essay, another (and not to word counts, profit from them), nevertheless there is no basis for legally requiring that the acceptance essay, crimes of another should be reported. Such positive duties- like the positive duty to be a good Samaritan- has no place in criminal law. Blackmail laws are often taken for granted. Essays Articles Education Social Evil. Indeed, such is the self acceptance essay, moral objecctionableness of blackmail in many people's minds that they cannot imagine how the decriminalization of blackmail could possibly be supported.
But, like many other practices considered morally and socially objectionable, their objectionableness does not immediately or easily translate into a matter for the criminal law. It has been my contention that this is true of blackmail. Essay. As the paradox of essay, blackmail should have alerted us, there's indeed something deeply problematic about criminalizing an act that conjoins two other acts that, in essays in the themselves, are not criminal. * Walter Block, author of Defending the Undefendable , is Professor of Economics at the University of Central Arkansas , Conway , Arkansas . Email: firstname.lastname@example.org . The author wishes to thank John Kleinig for his editorial support, which far surpassed the ordinary call of editorial duty. 1. Williams, Blackmail ,  CRIM. L. REV. 79, at 163 (1954). Acceptance. It was Williams who originally spoke of the paradox of on changes in the by william, blackmail.
The morality of the constituent acts is, perhaps less clear than their legality. But my concern here is with the acceptance, justification of blackmail's criminalization not with its morality per se. 2. It might be claimed that using the example of extramarital affairs- though typical -unfairly prejudices the divind and classification, case in favor the opponent of blackmail. Many would feel that the philanderer deserved what was coning to self acceptance essay, him- whether it was blackmail or exposure. If the information were of a different but still mortifying kind - disclosure that a bank executive always took a rubber duckie into his bath, or wet his bed, or had a black/Jewish grandmother- would we feel as sanguine about the blackmailers opportunism? Perhaps not, but this would not show that the blackmailer should be punished for seeking to get something in return for silence. 3. Authors offering arguments in favor of the ias essay, present prohibition of blackmail are numerous. They include: Alldridge, Attempted Murder of the Soul : Blackmail, Privacy and Secrets . 13 OXFORD J. LEGAL STUD. 363 (1993); Altman, A Patchwork Theory of essay, Blackmail , 141 U. PA. L. REV.
1639 (1993); Becker, The Case Against Blackmail, unpublished MS (1985); Berman, The Evidentiary Theory of social, Blackmail: Taking Motives Seriously, 65 U. Acceptance Essay. CHI. L. REV. Mba Essay Word. 795 (1998); Boyle, A Theory of Law and Information . Copyright, Spleens , Blackmail, and Insider Trading, 80 CALIF. Self Essay. L. REV. 1413 (1992); Brown, Blackmail as Private Justice , 141 U. PA.
L. REV. 1935 (1993); Campbell, Why Blackmail Should be Criminalized: A Reply to Walter Block and David Gordon, 21 LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES L. REV. 883 (1933); Campbell, The Anomalies of Blackmail , 55 LEGAL Q. Rev. 382(1939); Coase, The 1987 McCorkle Lecture: Blackmail , 74 VA. L. REV., 655 (1988); Daly Giertz, Externalities, Extortion, and Efficiency; Reply, 68 AM. Essays On My Aim In Life. ECON. REV.
736 (1978); DeLong, Blackmailers, Bribe Takers, and the Second Paradox , 141 U. P.A, L. REV. 1663 (1993); Ellsherg, The Theory and Practice of Blackmail, in acceptance essay BARGANING: FORMAL THEORY OF NEGOTIATION 343 (O.R. Young, ed. 1975); Epstein, Blackmail, Inc ., 50 U. CHI. L. REV., 553 (1983); Evans, Why Blackmail Should be Banned , 65 PHIL. 89 (1990); Feinberg, The Paradox of Blackmail , 1 RATIO JURIS 83 (1988); J. FEINBERG, HARMLESS WRONGDOING (1990); Fletcher, Blackmail . The Paradigmatic Case, 141 U. PA. L. REV. 1617 (1993); C. FRIED, CONTRACT AS PROMISE 102 (1981); Ginsburg Shechtman, Blackmail: An Economic Analysis of the ias essay syllabus, Law , 141 U. PA.
L. REV. 1849 (1993); Goodhart, Blackmail and Consideration in Contracts , 44 LEGAL Q. REV. 436 (1928), repr. in A.L. GOODHART, ESSAYS IN JURISPRUDENCE AND THE COMMON LAW 175 (1931); Gordon, Truth and Consequences : The Force of Blackmail's Central Case, 141 U. PA. L. REV. l74l (1993); Gory, Nozick’s Argument Against Blackmail , 58 PERSONALIST 187 (1977); Gorr, Liberalism and acceptance, the Paradox of Blackmail , 21 PHIL. PUB. AFF. 43 (1992); Haksar, Coercive Proposals, 4 POL.
THEORY, 65 (1976); Hale, Bargaining, Duress, and Economic Liberty , 43 COLUM. L. Rev. 603 (1943); Hale, Coercion and Distribution in a Supposedly Non-Coercive State , 38 POL. SCI. Q. 470 (1923); Hardin, Blackmailing for Mutual Good 141 U. PA.L.
Rev. 1787 (1993); M. Essays On My Aim In. HEPWORTH, BLACKMAIL: PUBLICITY AND SECRECY IN EVERYDAY LIFE 29-40 (1975); Isenbergh, Blackmail from A to C , 141 U. PA. L. REV. 1905 (l993); Jandoo Harland, Legally Aided Blackmail , 27 NEW L. J. 402 (1984); Katz, Blackmail and Other Forms of Arm Twisting , 141 U. PA. L REW.
1567 (1993); Katz Lindgren, Instead of self acceptance, a Preface , 141 U. Essays On Changes. PA. L. REV. 1565 (1993); Landes Posner, The Private Enforcement of essay, Law, 4 J. LEGAL. Cronon. STUD. 1 (1975); Lindgren, Unraveling the self acceptance essay, Paradox of Blackmail , 84 COLUM. L. REV. 670 (1984) Lindgren, More Blackmail Ink; a Critique of Blackmail Inc ., Epstein's Theory of Blackmail 16 COLUM. L. REV. Essays Aim In. 909 (1984) Lindgren, In Defense of Keeping Blackmail A Crimes: Responding to Block and Gordon, 20 LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES L. Self Acceptance. REV.
35 (1986); Lindgren, Blackmail; On Waste, Morals and Ronald Coase 36 U.C.L.A. L. REV. 597 (1989); Lindgren, Kept in the Dark; Owen's View of Blackmail, 21 CONN. Mba Essay Word. L. REV. 749 (1989); Lindgren, Secret Rights: A Comment on Campbell's Theory of acceptance essay, Blackmail , 21 CONN. L. REV. 407 (1989); Lindgren, Blackmail: An Afterword , 141 U. PA. On Changes In The Cronon. L. REV. 1975 (1993); Lindgren, The Theory, History and Practice of the Bribery-Extortion Distinction , 141, U. PA. L. REV. 1695 (1993); Lyons, Welcome Threats and Coercive Offers , 50 PHIL.
425 (l975); Murphy, Blackmail; A Preliminary Inquiry, 63 MONIST 156 (1980); R. NOZICK, ANACHY, STATE, AND UTOPIA (1974); Owens, Should Blackmail be Banned ?, 63 PHIL. 501 (l979); R.A. Essay. POSNER, ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF LAW (4th ed. 1992); Posner, Blackmail, Privacy and Freedom of Contract, 141 U. Aim In. PA. Self Acceptance Essay. L. REV. Essays On My Aim In. 1817 (1993); Shavell, An Economic Analysis of Threats and Their Legality: Blackmail, Extortion and Robbery , 141 U. PA L. Self. REV. 1877 (1993); Tooher, Developments in the Law of Blackmail in England and word, Australia , 27 INT.
COMP. L. Acceptance Essay. Q., 337 (1978); Waldron, Blackmail as Complicity , unpublished MS (1992); Williams, Blackmail, supra n.1; Winder, The Development of ias essay syllabus, Blackmail , 5 MODERN L. Self Acceptance Essay. REV. 21 (1941). 4. In contrast, here is the social evil dowry, libertarian case for the repeal of laws prohibiting blackmail: Mack, In Defense of Blackmail, 41 PHIL. STUD. 273 (1982); M.N. R0THBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY (1998); M.N. ROTHBARD, MAN, ECONOMY AND STATE 443 n. 49 (1993); Block , The Blackmailer as Hero , THE LIBERTARIAN FORUM 1 (Dec. 1972); W. Self Acceptance Essay. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE 44-49 (1976; 1991); Block Gordon, Extortion and talking, the Exercise of Free Speech Rights; A Reply to Professors Posner, Epstein, Nozick and Lindgren , 19 LOYALAS OF LOS ANGELES.
REV. 37(1985); Block, Trading Money for Silence, 8 U. Self Acceptance Essay. HAWAII L. REV. 57(1986); Block, The Case for essays on my De-Criminalizing Blackmail: A Reply to Lindgren and essay, Campbell , 24 WESTERN STATE U. L.REV. Ias Essay. 225 (1997); Block, A Libertarian Theory of Blackmail , 33 IRISH JURIST 280 (1998); Block McGee, Blackmail from A to Z , 50 MERCER L. REV. 569 (1999); Block, Towards a Libertarian Theory of self acceptance essay, Blackmail , J. LIBERTARIAN STUD. (forthcoming); Block McGee, Blackmail As a Victimless Crime , 31 BRACTON L. J. 24 (1999); Block, Kinsella, Hoppe, The Second Paradox of Blackmail , Q, J. BUS. ETHICS, (forthcoming); Block, Let's Legalize Blackmail , SETON HALL L. Rev (forthcoming); Block, Blackmailing For Mutual Good VERMONT L. Divind And Classification Essays. REV. (forthcoming); Block Anderson, Posner on Blackmail; A Critique (forthcoming); Block, Blackmail and Economic Analysis , THOMAS JEFFERSON. REV. Essay. (forthcoming); Block, Threats, Blackmail, Extortion, Robbery and Other Bad Things TULSA L. Mba Essay Word Counts. REV. (forthcoming); Block, Blackmail is self acceptance essay, Private Justice , U. BRIT. COLUM. L. REV. (forthcoming).
5. Katz, Blackmail and Other Forms of essay talking whispers, Arm Twisting , supra n. 3, at essay, 1567-68. Sometimes the threat may take the form of an offer- though of a form that Hillel Steiner refers to as a throffer- in which failure to talking, take it up is associated with threatened consequences. Self Essay. See Steiner, Individual Liberty , 75 ARISTOTELIAN SOC’Y PROC. 33, at 39 (1974-75). 6. Essay Whispers. Mack, In Defense of Blackmail , supra n. 4, at essay, 277. To counter the essay whispers, response that these are cases in which the blackmailees are being blackmailed only into not doing something, Mack suggests that the factory owner might be blackmailed into donating money for Cambodian relief (278).
7. Self Acceptance Essay. Fletcher, Blackmail; The Paradigmatic Case , supra n. 3. 8. Essays On My Aim In. Gordon, Truth and Consequences , supra n. 3, at 1744. 9. See Altman, A Patchwork Theory of self, Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1640. 10. Restaurants and supermarkets often donate day old food to the poor. 11. Gordon, Truth and Consequences , supra n. 3, at 1746. Mack's counter-examples (supra n. 6) cast some doubt on the generality of ias essay syllabus, this claim.
12. Self Acceptance. In actual fact, a blackmailer's motives might be much more complicated. Although taking monetary advantage of a situation may well be one consideration, moral umbrage might also figure, along with, say, a more remote desire to obtain money to pay for a sick child's operation. Essay Whispers. Gordon's characterization of the blackmailer's intent might- in certain cases, at least-apply equally to many other currently legal commercial ventures, which people may undertake. 13. Essay. Altman, A Patchwork Theory of counts, Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1641. 14.
The simple fact of acceptance, a threat is not sufficient to make the act coercive (and hence illegitimate). If I threaten to sue you for the damage you have caused to my car, unless you pay for its repair, my threat constitutes no illegitimate coercion. Mba Essay Word. Should it be argued that some threats one has a right to make (as in essay the latter case) whereas others one has no right to essays, make (as in blackmail), the libertarian will reply that this begs the question: Why should Alfred not threaten to reveal Bill's extra-marital affairs unless some payment is made? 15. Self Acceptance. Should it be objected that the destruction of reputation by means of disclosure of essays on my, information about one does constitute a violation of rights (as is sometimes allowed by laws against self acceptance, libel and defamation), the libertarian will respond that the question is begged. A libertarian would not agree to the enforceable securing of reputation against damaging information. On this see W. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE, Supra n.4, at 59-62; M. ROTHBARD, ETHICS OF LIBERTY, supra n. 4, at 121-22. 16. Essays On Changes In The. For this argument, see Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1642, fn. 11.
For a rejoinder, see Block McGee, Blackmail As a Victimless Crime supra n. 4, text at note 23. 17. That may be too strong: perhaps there is acceptance essay, a moral or religious obligation not to and classification essays, gossip about others. And perhaps what is private does not change its status as a result of becoming known to another. Essay. But there is no enforceable legal obligation not to essays articles dowry, pass on the information that has come into one’s possession. 18. Katz, Blackmail and Other Forms of Arm-Twisting , supra n. 3, at acceptance essay, 1599. 19. See Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra p. Articles Social Evil. 3, at 1643. 20. I am, of course, assuming that there is no Good Samaritan law requiring that assistance be given.
Were there such a law, a libertarian would of course oppose it. 21. That surely goes for investigative reporters, newshounds, and gossip columnists as well. Self Acceptance. They also profit from ias essay syllabus, information that others would prefer to keep secret. 22. Libertarians reject privacy rights that are not reducible to property rights- rights not to have one's property bugged or phone tapped.
See M. ROTHBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY, Supra 4, at self, 121-22. 23. Essays On My Aim In. Although some jurisdictions do recognize torts for violation of self acceptance, privacy, libertarians are opposed to such constraints, because such torts must allow -what I challenge- that people can have property rights in their reputation. 24. See e.g., Fletcher, Blackmail: The Paradigmatic Case , supra n. 3, at 1623, 1627. Talking Whispers. See also Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1648. Fletcher sees the acceptance essay, possibility of the blackmailer's coming back for more as constituting a permanent domination of the mba essay, blackmailer over the blackmailee. But that is only if no contract is made between the self, blackmailer and divind, blackmailee forbidding any further claims. 25.
Richard Epstein, Blackmail, Inc ., supra n. 3. 26. For an extended discussion, see Block Gordon, Extortion and the Exercise of Free Speech Rights , supra n. 4. 27. Essay. Brown, Blackmail as Private Justice , supra n. 3. 28. Altman, A Patchwork Theory of Blackmail , supra n. 3, at 1649. 29. Indeed, one might be inclined to argue that the blackmailer displays a kind of essays by william cronon, decency toward the blackmailee by essay offering him a way out of his predicament (the blackmailer's opportunity to damage the potential blackmailee by disclosing- as he has a right to do- the information he has on articles social evil dowry, him).
The gossip provides no such injury-averting option. See Block Gordon, Blackmail, Extortion and Free Speech , supra n. 4, at 39: In contrast to the gossip, who tells the essay, secret without even affording the victim the on changes in the land by william cronon, opportunity of essay, purchasing silence, the blackmailer can be seen as a benefactor. 30. See W. BLOCK, DEFENDING THE UNDEFENDABLE, supra p. 4, at 59-62; also, M. ROTHBARD, THE ETHICS OF LIBERTY supra n. Education Evil Dowry. 4, at l26-27. 31. On this see M. ROTHBARD, FOR A NEW LIBERTY (1973)
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