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anthony perl resume Mountain View, 94043. I do not have a Word formatted resume. My most recent resume is in planning business names HTML format and can be downloaded and imported into Word. NOTE: For the summer of 2013, I left my job to gradstudies spend time with my kid. Wedding Planning Business Names! I can only work about half-time until August 11th when I can go full time again. During the statements, summer, I am working on Hadoop, getting Hadoop certified, bought a powerful home computer for virtualized services, working on my DAD for wedding planning business names, Mongo project, working on personal for cv, a math problem, and working on my Mongo presentation which I presented twice already, but I want to make it perfect. I plan on not working the business, summer of 2013, but if something presents itself, so be it. Summary: My goal is to have at least 50% of campaign essay questions my job maintaining databases (Mongo, MariaDB Cluster (MySQL), Hadoop, and planning names Hive) and creating/developing programs/scripts to maintain databases. This can include Apache, Nagios, Ganglia, or similar software.

The other 50% could be SysAdmin or Programming, as long as databases are a majority of the focus. Case Analysis! I mainly program in Python and wedding planning Bash, and have done lots of Perl, PHP, and some other languages in the past. Other technologies of interest are PostgreSQL, other NoSQL technologies, bonus on running Python in a Hadoop environment or Python being used in big data environments described in http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i0FCn889ucs. I have also worked as a Systems Administrator and I have been certified in Linux, but I would no longer call myself a Senior SysAdmin because I haven't worked directly as a SysAdmin for 6 years. * Layoffs or couldn't afford fulltime employees: Nuasis, Yahoo, Ribbit. * Choose to leave: CNET (but I loved my job), Google (didn't like it at all -- nobody liked my boss). Women Media! I left reputation.com to spend time with my kid this summer. Plan on going back to full time in August. At all my jobs except one, I liked my bosses and the people in my department.

I would like to stay at wedding planning one place for a few years. I don't like moving around. In The Media Essays! ActiveVideo, Ribbit, Yahoo/RightMedia, CNET, Nuasis, etc. At all jobs, I installed and configured Linux for web, database, networking, firewall, and other services.. Professional Certification and. ActiveVideo, Ribbit, Yahoo/RightMedia, CNET, SalesJobs, Adspotter, DataTronics, RedBand. ActiveVideo, Ribbit, Yahoo/RightMedia, Nuasis, CHE-LLP, Boston, GUPPS project, AudioBoomerang. OOP and have used many different classes of Python. Planning Business Names! Author of MySQL.py listed at the Vaults of Parnassus (dead link now). Author of Database Administration Dashboard written in great statements Python.

Author of planning business Class::Inheritance. Always program in OOP, use mod_perl, and have used many different Perl packages from schreyers essays, CPAN. Created a module on CPAN called Class::Inheritance. ActiveVideo,AudioBoomerang, RedBand, Adspotter, personal project GUPPS. Always program in OOP and use mod_php.

Installed and planning business setup database, programmed stored procedures, etc. I used PostgreSQL a lot in the late 90's upto 2002. Wrote OOP code to case study interface with Oracle and also wrote stored procedures. I haven't used Oracle since 2004 in wedding business production. I haven't used Oracle in years. College Essays! I prefer MySQL and PostgreSQL. Expert at : MySQL (multiple certifications), Linux (multiple certifications), PostgreSQL, Apache, Zope, NFS, DNS, Samba, postfix, nessus, nagios, ganglia, ntp, squid, vnc, yum, RAID (software and hardware), LVM, virtual hosting, rpm, KickStart. Perl (with emphasis on mod_perl, CPAN modules, and apache modules using apache hooks), Python, XML, SQL (PL/pgSQL, PL/SQL), PHP3/4, ,PostgreSQL procedures, Javascript, UNIX shell scripting, HTML, and planning some C, C++, JAVA, TCL/TK, LISP, Modula-2, Assembly.

Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris, MacOS, WindowsNT, Windows2000/98/95/3.11, AIX, IRIX. Web and Database. Web : XML, ZOPE, Apache (mod_perl, mod_php, and python integration), Midgard, Netscape Enterprise, Apache, AOLServer, IIS. Database : PostgreSQL (including PL/pgSQL and Perl, Python, and PHP procedures), MySQL, Oracle (including PL/SQL) , Sybase, MS SQL, Informix. Novell Certified Linux Administrator (CLA) Sept, 2011. MySQL 5.1 Cluster Certification June, 2009. MySQL 5.0 Certification June, 2009.

Linux Level II Certification -- June 2005 Linux Professional Institute. Linux Level I Certification (recertified) -- 2005 Linux Professional Institute. (Attaining) Bachelors in Mathematics from The Ohio State University. MySQL Professional Certification -- Oct 2004 MySQL. MySQL Core Certification -- Sept 2004 MySQL. Linux Certification -- Sept 2004 Linux Professional Institute. Essays! Linux Level I Certification -- June 2001 Linux Professional Institute. Planning Business Names! Certified Linux Professional -- June 2001 from SAIR/Linux. Essay! Certified Linux Professional and Instructor -- Oct 1999 from SAIR/Linux.

Working towards Cisco, Solaris, Oracle, MCP, and XML certifications. Minor Online Certifications. ExpertRating.com Certifications -- Oct 2004 : Minor certifications in Perl, PHP, XML, and Windows NT. Planning! ExpertRating.com Certification -- Oct 2012 : Minor certification in Python 2.x. Publications and Talks.

Written, not sure which web edition it was in for gradstudies, The Linux Gazette, an names article about setting up MySQL Cluster on a single box. Essay! In the August, 2003 web edition of The Linux Journal , wrote an article about executing and planning transferring from one computer to another using Python and Expect. In the Feb, 2000 edition of The Linux Journal, wrote an article about one Multi-Boot system with 6 Linux distributions, FreeBSD, NT, and DOS. Paper! In year 2000, wrote an article for planning business names, SysAdmin about using MILAS to install Linux and Windows onto computers from one SCSI hard drive to 4 IDE hard drives using a normal computer with 4 hard drive removable disk drives. MILAS was written using Perl (with heavy use of Expect), standard unix commands, sfdisk, and rsync. Have written 50+ articles for The Linux Gazette from 1998 to present. Articles involved programming, networking, hardware issues, installing, or configuring Linux systems and services. Women Essays! Have written 5+ articles for Linux Focus from 2000 to present . Articles involved programming, networking, hardware issues, installing, or configuring Linux systems and services. Planning Business! MongoLA 2013 conference speaker about DAD. MongoSV 2012 conference speaker about DAD. Created github repository (mostly empty) to put DAD software on.

Using an AWS server to calculate Ramsey numbers for fun. Side purpose is to develop a good Python class architecture to use for DAD. Schreyers Honors Essays! Creating an wedding planning business names open-source MySQL Dashboard which I made at campaign questions all the companies I worked for. Now I am open sourcing it by creating a brand new version. Creating Python scripts at names CNET to automate MySQL tasks, amoung other things. Eventually, it will be open sourced. Managed and organized the Ubuntu non-profit booth at great for cv LinuxWorld 06. Presented MySQL Failover Techniques at a MySQL Users Group meeting in Oct 2005. Participated in wedding business the MySQL Customer Advisory Board in essay questions Oct 2005. Creating the MySQL.py module to install and manage MySQL.

It is available at the Vaults of Parnassus or here. Creating the CPAN module Class::Inheritance which is available on CPAN. Pay attention to the YUM mailing list. Write articles in The Linux Gazette at linuxgazette.net. Names! Attend Linux meetings at coursework SVLUG when I can. Will release the planning business, Database Administration Dashboard to great personal for cv the public when I can.

Senior MySQL and Mongo DBA at Reputation.com. 10/2011 to present. Redwood City, CA. MariaDB 5.2 and wedding planning names Mongo 2.0.6, Nagios, Ubuntu, Python, BASH. Upgraded MySQL to MariaDB 5.2 on honors, all MySQL installations. Names! Using Percona InnoDB Cluster on some servers. Moving MySQL and MariaDB towards Percona or MariaDB Innodb Cluster. Upgraded Mongo systems to 2.2.3 and soon 2.4. Honors College Essays! Also involved with creating shards, replica sets, monitoring, and projections for Mongo Systems.

Wrote software in Python to monitor Mongo and to administer Mongo which will be on github. Wedding Planning Business! Managing terabytes of Mongo installed data. On a daily basis, monitoring Mongo and MySQL (nagios, Munin, and MMS), setting up new systems, trying to debug why database queries are slow (MySQL or Mongo). Minor experience with Hadoop and best exercises Hive and am interested in planning business names pursuing Hadoop and Hive. Gradstudies Coursework! Environment: Linux, MySQL, Python. Senior DBA at ActiveVideo. 03/2010 to 10/2011. Wedding Names! Percona MySQL 5.1 and MariaDB 5.2 (soon MariaDB 5.3), Nagios, Linux, Python, BASH. Duties involved setting up MySQL Nagios Alarms, using a GPLed Database Administration Dashboard (which I wrote), managing multiple MySQL installations, managing terabytes of data and converting the data into a datamart. Wrote example Python scripts to replace scripts which load data into our raw databases, to convert raw data into a datamart, archive raw data that has been converted to a datamart. College 2012! The Python scripts are in a finished state to be handed over the to development team.

Installed services such as Nagios, Wiki, Mercurial, and other technologies for our department (some of wedding planning which may get used by people besides me). Install, maintain, and perform light sysadmin duties on servers. Investigating other database technologies such as InfiniDB and map reduce technologies. Environment: Linux, MySQL, Python. Senior DBA at Ribbit. 01/2009 to 3/2010. Mountain View, CA.

Percona MySQL 5.0, Percona MySQL 5.1, MySQL Cluster development, Nagios, Linux, Python, BASH. Duties involved setting up MySQL Nagios Alarms, creating Usage Reports written in Python, writing up Wiki Pages over Database Adminstration, creating simple Python Webpages for viewing activity on the MySQL servers, setting up MySQL Slaves, backup and restoring databases, optimizing queries. Created Data Warehouse and Report servers. Environment: Linux, MySQL, Python. Senior DBA (MySQL) at finance questions Yahoo! 11/2006 to 12/2008.

San Francisco, CA. The environment included MySQL 5.0/5.1, Linux, Apache, Bash, and Python. We had around 200 MySQL servers (including the backup data center). Our largest database included terabytes of data. We use MySQL Replication and Dual Master for most backup/recovery solutions. We were getting close to implementing MySQL Cluster for planning business, one database. We had a variety of problems which required unique solutions including the Black Hole engine, stored procdures, and mixed InnoDB/MySQL databases. Most of our time was spent implementing new tables in an efficient manner, replacing servers when they crashed, fixing bad queries, predicting when we would need to add more servers, and looking for coursework, new solutions to make our environment scale when data would grow. Without revealing any sensitive information, I was involved with the wedding, data relating to advertisements (stats collection, prediction, analytics, and reporting).

Due to layoffs, Yahoo is gradstudies coursework, letting people go, and my boss would prefer that I stay. I really enjoyed my time working for my boss at Yahoo. I was originally employed by RightMedia (Yahoo bought RightMedia shortly thereafter). Environment: Linux, MySQL, Python. Wedding Planning! 11/2005 to 11/2006. CNET in San Francisco, CA. CNET is a media company with such sites as WebShots.com and News.com. I an employee as a full-time MySQL DBA in a fairly complex and large environment. Essay! I write programs in Python to automate DBA tasks.

I write tasks to wedding planning automate Backup, Recovery, monitoring, projections, etc. The purpose of the schreyers honors college essays, scripts is to let non-DBA's understand their environment and to push tasks to operations so that the DBA's can do long-term planning and testing. Wedding Planning Business! I really enjoyed my job here, so it was hard to leave. I liked my boss here. Best Exercises! The opportunities at wedding planning business RightMedia (which was bought by Yahoo) were too good to pass up.

Environment: Linux, MySQL, Python. 1/2005 to 10/2005. Google Mountain View, CA. Before I went to CNET for a full-time position when my boss asked me to come back to CNET, I worked at Google for a while. Duties: Responsible for part of the billing DBA systems. Helped to design Backup, Failover, and Recovery documentation. Responsible for SOX, Backup, Failover, Recovery, Replication, implementation, and performance tuning duties regarding SQL server. Assisted with monitoring duties. Assisted with expansion from a small number of servers to a large number of servers. Responsible for Sys Admin duties as well.

Environment: Python, SQL, BASH, Linux, and MySQL. Gradstudies! 10/2004 to 12/2004. CNET in San Francisco, CA. CNET is a media company with such sites as WebShots.com and News.com. Wrote a project in Perl to convert data from Sybase to MySQL. Worked as a contractor.

Environment: Linux, MySQL, Perl, Sybase, Solaris, SSH. 3/2004 to 10/2004. Nuasis in Mountain View, CA. Nuasis started laying off people and shortly went out of business. My position as well as others were cut. Names! Initially assisted and finance questions then took over the process making it easy for planning business, the QA, Ops, and Support staff to install Nuasis products. Schreyers College 2012! Perl was used to create a custom WhiteBox (RedHat ES3) Linux distrbution, kickstart disks based on names, the profile of various server types, and a web interface to manage those systems. Perl is campaign finance essay questions, heavily integrated with the wedding, Linux environment. In addition, setup Python webpages to provide temporary tools for managing installations with a Kickstart server. Case Study Paper! Current projects include using a RedHat Satellite server and Yum servers. Environment: Linux, Kickstart, DHCP, DNS, Yum, RH Satellite Server, Automation, Perl, Python, Apache, Oracle, SSH.

12/2003 to wedding business 3/2004. FriendFinder in San Jose, CA. Perl programmer in campaign finance essay a Linux/Apache/MySQL/Perl. FriendFinder.com is the largest personals website in the world. They have a very large Apache/Database setup involving many high-speed servers. The contract was a short-term job to create a Campaign Manager which their marketing staff used to track advertising campaigns.

The Campaign Manager also kept track of expense and revenue and calculated the ROI for each campaign. Didn't exactly know what this website was really about at the time. Environment: Linux, Apache, MySQL,Perl. Systems Adminstrator/ Programmer. 10/2001 to December 2003. CHE-LLP in North Carolina. Part-time job (20 hours per week).

75% Python OOP programming and wedding planning business names 25% Systems and Database Administration . I managed The DMZ (demilitarized zone) for CHE-LLP. Google Study! This involves managing the computers and people, creating technical specifications for hardware, software, server installation, and programming environments, and programming in names Python, Zope, SQL, and campaign essay questions other languages. I support and manage all technologies in the DMZ as well as doing the grunt work. The main technologies I manage are: Python, Apache, Zope, Cold Fusion, Linux, PostgreSQL, DNS, Postfix, firewall, SAMBA (for backup purposes), Proxy servers, and planning names other services. Environment: Linux, Apache, PostgreSQL, Python for Linux and Python for Windows, Zope, Cold Fusion, Virtual Hosts . 4/2001 to 12/2002. 50% System and Database Administration and 50% Perl OOP programming (and other languages).

Job involved installing and maintaining web and database servers on a Linux platform. Programmed in Perl/mod_perl, PHP, Cold Fusion, Python, SQL and HTML. Created multimedia presentations using Flash, Javascript, and CSS to coursework be used for clients and internal use. Managed Perl and Flash programmers and names taught programmers specific tasks for certain applications. Environment: Perl/mod_perl, PHP, Cold Fusion, Python, SQL, HTML, JAVA, JavaScript, Flash 5/6, Linux, MySQL, ORACLE. Started GUPPS project in 2001 which creates Python, PHP and women media essays Perl modules and webscripts given a database design. Environment: Python, PHP, Perl/mod_perl. Worked on a PHP project for Adspotter as an wedding AudioBoomerang consultant.

Environment: PHP, MySQL, HTML. 50% Perl OOP programming and for depression 50% System and MySQL Adminstration . This job ranged from a part-time job to a full-time job depending on needs of client. SalesJobs was a small company with less than 10 employees. Planning Business! Setup network and google case study networking services, installed web and database servers, programmed in Perl for webserver. Managed and taught a small group of Perl and Web consultants to assist in writing Perl modules and planning business names scripts. Environment : Perl/mod_perl, PHP, MySQL, ORACLE, Linux, Apache,Javascript,HTML,routers, firewalls. 90% Perl OOP programming , 10% other tasks. Fulltime job. Study! Created security password application using PostgreSQL, Oracle, Perl, and Apache. Environment: Perl/mod_perl, HTML, ORACLE, Solaris, PostgreSQL . The Computer Underground. 50% Systems, Network, Database, and Hardware Administration and 50% Perl, PHP, or Python OOP programming . Fulltime job.

Initially, built and sold Linux and wedding WindowsNT systems and managed a local area network of 5 computers. Later, did consulting work through TCU for companies in New York, Denver, and Boston. Best! Designed and implemented an online purchasing and invoice system for computer hardware. Linux, Windows NT, Perl, PHP, Python, HTML, MySQL, PostgreSQL, ORACLE, Flash. Worked as a consultant for these companies while at Computers Underground.

MonsterData and DataTronics. Wedding Planning Names! 10/1999 to 12/1999. Gradstudies Coursework! 90% Perl OOP programming and 10% other tasks. Created webpages using Perl, Linux, Solaris, and Oracle on a short-term project. Projects involved organizing data for customers, creating invoices, and letting customers order the data online on a per-view or monthly subscription.

Environment : Perl/mod_perl, PHP, Linux, ORACLE, Solaris, HTML. The Ohio State University. Health Sciences Library. Wedding Planning Business! Duties involved installing and maintaining NT, Unix, and Linux Systems. Setup file, print, and essay web services on the NT servers. Setup a SGI O2 graphics workstation.

Used Linux for DNS, file sharing, print sharing, web server, and as a database server (PostgreSQL). 40% of the time was managing the systems and network, 50% of the time was programming in wedding planning names HTML, Javascript, Perl, and SQL, and schreyers essays 2012 10% of the time was administrating an AIX computer for accounts used by the medical community for searching medical articles. Environment: Perl, PHP, Linux, Windows NT, HTML, Irix ,PostgreSQL,AIX. Part time job. Worked at QuickNet installing Linux servers. Resolving networking issues, writing Perl scripts, and managing services such as the webserver, newsserver, and the radius server. Wrote perl scripts to analyze data from a radius server.

Left job on good terms for a fulltime job at The Ohio State University.

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Creative and Prime Name Ideas for an Event Planning Business

Reservation System in India: Concept, Arguments and Conclusions. Reservation System in India: Concept, Arguments and Conclusions! Reservation in common terms refers to an act of reserving, keeping back or withholding. Reservation in the Indian Context : Reservation in Indian law is wedding planning business, a form of affirmative action whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the public sector units, union and state civil services, union and state government departments and in all public and private educational institutions, except in the religious/ linguistic minority edu­cational institutions, for the socially and educationally backward communities and the Scheduled Castes and Tribes who are inadequately represented in finance essay questions these services and institutions. Planning Business Names! The reserva­tion policy is also extended for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for representation in the Parliament of India. The underlying theory for the provision of reservation by the state is the under-representation of the identifiable groups as a legacy of the honors college 2012, Indian caste system. After India gained independence, the Constitution of India listed some erstwhile groups as Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). The framers of the wedding, Constitution believed that, due to the caste system, SCs and the STs were historically oppressed and denied respect and google analysis, equal opportunity in Indian society and were thus under-represented in nation-building activities. The Constitution laid down 15% and 7.5% of vacan­cies to government aided educational institutes and for jobs in the government/public sector, as reserved quota for the SC and ST candidates respectively for a period of five years, after which the situation was to be reviewed.

After introducing the provision for wedding business, reservation once, it got related to vote bank politics and the following governments and the Indian Parliament routinely extended this period, without any free and fair revisions. Later, reservations were introduced for other sections as well. The Supreme Court ruling that reservations cannot exceed 50% (which it judged would violate equal access guaranteed by the Constitution) has put a cap on study, reservations. The central government of India reserves 27% of planning business names higher education, and schreyers, individual states may legislate further reservations. Reservation in most states is at 50%, but certain Indian states like Rajasthan have proposed a 68% reservation that includes a 14% reservation for forward castes in wedding business names services and education. However, there are states laws that exceed this 50% limit and great personal statements for cv, these are under litigation in the Supreme Court. For example, the caste-based reservation fraction stands at 69% and is applicable to about 87% of the population in the state of Tamil Nadu. Arguments Offered By Supporters of Reservation : a. Planning Business! Reservations are a political necessity in great personal for cv India. b. Business Names! Although Reservation schemes do undermine the quality of education but still Affirmative Action has helped many if not everyone from under-privileged and/or under-represented communities to statements for cv, grow and occupy top positions in the world’s leading industries.

c. Although Reservation schemes do undermine the planning names, quality, they are needed to provide social justice to the most marginalized and underprivileged which is their human right. d. Meritocracy is meaningless without equality. First all people must be brought to the same level, whether it elevates a section or decelerates another, regardless of best exercises for depression merit. e. Reservations have only slowed down the process of “Forward becoming richer and backward becom­ing poorer”. Arguments Offered by Anti-Reservationists : a. Intellectuals and Philanthropists agree that reservations will divide India Reservation is planning business, similar to internal partition because in best for depression addition to business, being a form of ethnic discrimination, it also builds walls against inter-caste and inter-faith marriages. Vast majority of voters are discriminating against finance essay a newly created minority. b. Reservations are the biggest enemy of meritocracy. By offering reservation through relaxed entry criteria, we are fuelling inflation of wedding planning names moderate credentials as opposed to the promotion of merit based education system, which is the foundation of many progressive countries. Meritocracy should not be polluted by injecting relaxation of entry barriers, rather should be encouraged by great personal statements offering financial aids to the underprivileged although deserving candidates only. Today the NTs and IIMs hold a high esteem in the global scenario due to their conservation of merit. c. Caste Based Reservation only perpetuates the notion of caste in society, rather than weakening it as a factor of social consideration, as envisaged by business names the constitution.

Reservation is a tool to meet narrow political ends. d. Great For Cv! Affirmative Action can be provided at a more comprehensive level taking into account various factors of wedding business names exclusion such as caste, economic conditions, gender, kind of schooling received etc. A comprehensive scheme of Affirmative Action would be more beneficial than reservations in addressing concerns of social justice. e. Allocating quotas is honors, a form of discrimination which is contrary to the right to equality. f. There is great confusion in the “pro-reservation camp”. Names! While they clamour for 33% reservation for women in parliament and state legislatures [and do not accept caste quotas as part of women’s quotas], they do not want special consideration for women in quotas in higher education.

This is implicit acceptance of the exercises, fact that there are multiple factors of exclusion and discrimination at work in society. g. The policy of reservation has never been subject to a widespread social or political audit. Before extending reservation to more groups, the entire policy needs to be properly examined, and its ben­efits over a span of nearly 60 years have to be gauged. h. Poor people from “forward castes” do not have any social or economical advantage over rich people from backward caste. i. Combination of factors like Wealth, Income, and Occupation etc will help to identify real needy people. Most often, only the economically sound people make use of most of the seats reserved for “back­ward” castes, thus making the aim a total failure. j. There is fear that reservation once introduced will never be withdrawn even if there is a proof for wedding names, upliftment of essays backward classes, due to wedding, political issues. For example, in Tamil Nadu, forward castes were able to secure only campaign finance questions, 3% of total seats (and 9% in Open Competition) in professional institutions at Undergraduate level as against their population percentage of 13%. This is wedding names, a clear case of reverse discrimination. k. Many cite the Mandal Commission report while supporting the idea of reservations.

According to the Mandal commission, 52% of the Indians belong to OBC category, while according to coursework, National Sample Survey 1999-2000, this figure is only 36% (32% excluding Muslim OBCs). l. This policy of the government has already caused increase in brain drain and may aggravate further. Wedding Planning! Under graduates and graduates will start moving to foreign universities for higher education. Committees and Commissions on the Issue of Reservation : a. In The Media! 1882 – Hunter Commission was appointed. Planning Business! Mahatma Jyotirao Phule made a demand of free and compulsory education for all along with proportionate reservation/representation in government jobs.

b. 1953-Kalelkar Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and essays, educationally backward class. The report was accepted as far as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes were concerned. The recommendations for OBC’s were rejected. c. 1979-Mandal Commission was established to assess the situation of the socially and educationally backward. The commission didn’t have exact figures for wedding planning business, a sub-caste, known as the gradstudies, Other Backward Class (OBC), and used the 1930 census data, further classifying 1,257 communities as backward, to estimate the OBC population at business names 52%.ln 1980, the commission submitted a report, and recommended changes to the existing quotas, increasing them from 22% to 49.5%.ln 1990, the essays 2012, Mandal commission recommendations were implemented in Government Jobs by Vishwanath Pratap Singh.

Student Organisations launched nationwide agitations. Rajiv Goswami, a Delhi university student attempted self-immolation. Many students followed suit. d. 2003- The Sachar Committee headed by wedding names Justice Rajinder Sachar, and including Sayyid Hamid, Dr. T.K. Ooman, M.A. Basith, Dr.Akhtar Majeed, Dr.Abu Saleh Shariff and women essays, Dr.Rakesh Basant was appointed for preparation of a report on the social, economic and educational status of the Muslim community of India. Dr.Syed Zafar Mahmood was the civil servant appointed by planning the PM as Officer on Special Duty to the Committee. The committee submitted its report in the year 2006. Implementation of Sachar Committee Recommendations: Marching Towards ‘Inclusive Growth’: Welfare of Minorities, specially of the underprivileged section of them, has been put high on the agenda of the UPA Government ever since it adopted ‘inclusive growth’ as its guiding principle of governance.

Otherwise too, in every meaningful democracy, it’s the duty of the state, and as a corollary, responsibility of the majority community to coursework, ensure the welfare of minorities so that all sections of the wedding business, society feel proud to be part of the democratic setup and thus contribute their best to the development of the nation. Specially in our historical context: where all communities and sections of people had marched shoulder to shoulder and laid down their lives in the War of Independence, the concept of ‘Inclusive Growth’ becomes sine qua non for the roadmap of devel­opment and gradstudies, progress. It was in this context that the Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh, had appointed in March 2005 a High Level Committee under the Chairmanship of Justice Rajindar Sachar to prepare a report on social, economic and educational status of the Muslim Community of India. This study was necessary because till then there was no authentic information on the social, economic and planning names, educational backwardness, of this community, thereby hampering proper formulation and implementation of specific policies, interventions and programmes to essays, address the issues relating to its socio-economic backwardness.

This 7-member High Level Committee, popularly known as Sachar Committee, gave its report in November 2006 – and it clearly found that the Muslim community was really “seriously lagging behind in terms of most of the human development indicators.” The Government immediately sensed the gravity of the planning business, problem and started working on personal statements, the follow-up action in right earnest. Of the 76 recommendations of the Committee, 72 were accepted. Ministry of Minority Affairs being the Nodal Ministry for examining these recommendations. And in less than a year, i.e., on 31 August, 2007 a statement on the follow-up action taken on the recommendations of the Sachar Committee was laid in both Houses of Parliament. The progress of implementation is being reviewed regularly. Ever since the Government has been taking regular steps towards implementation of wedding names major recommendations of the Sachar Committee. Education being the most powerful means of socio­economic transformation, a multi-pronged strategy to address the educational backwardness of the Muslim community, as brought out by the Sachar Committee, has been adopted. The Madrasa modernization programme has been revised to make it more attractive by providing better salary to teachers, increased assistance for books, teaching aids and computers, and schreyers honors 2012, introduction of vocational subjects, etc. This scheme, now known as Quality Improvement in Madrasa Education, has been launched by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. A new centrally sponsored scheme of wedding planning names financial assistance for Infrastructure Development of Privately Managed Elementary/Secondary/Senior Secondary schools set up for minorities has been launched.

National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has prepared text books for all classes in the light of the National Curriculum Framework-2005. Thirteen universities have been provided Rs.40 lakh each for starting centers for studying social exclusion and inclusive policy for minorities and women, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Under the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya scheme (KGBV), criteria of business names educational backward blocks has been revised with effect from 1st April 2008 to campaign essay, cover blocks with less than 30% rural female literacy and in urban areas with less than national average of female literacy 53.67 % (Census 2001). Universalization of access to quality education at secondary stage (SUCCESS) has been approved. Setting up of wedding planning names new Jan Shikshan Sansthans (JSSs) is being incorporated in the revised schemes by the Ministry of great personal for cv Human Resource Development. Provision of more girls’ hostels in colleges and universities in business names minority concentration districts/blocks is proposed under the existing University Grants Commission scheme of the Ministry of HRD. Three scholarship schemes for finance essay, minority communities viz., Pre-Matric, Post-Matric and Merit- cum-Means were launched and 6.89 lakh scholarships were awarded to students belonging to minority communities in 2008-09. The corpus of Maulana Azad Education Foundation, which stood at wedding names Rs.

100 crores, was doubled to Rs. Personal Statements! 200 crores in December, 2006. The corpus was increased by Rs. 50 crores in 2007-08 and by Rs. 60 crore in 2008-09. A budget provision of Rs.115 crore has been made in 2009-10. A revised Coaching and wedding, Allied scheme was launched and 5522 candidates belonging to minority communities were provided assistance in 2008-09.

The Multi-sectoral Development Programme was launched in identified minority concentration districts in 2008-09. Plans of 47 Minority Concentration Districts (MCDs) in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Manipur, Bihar, Meghalaya, Jharkhand, Andaman Nicobar Islands and Orissa were approved and Rs.270.85 crores were released in 2008-09. In the current Financial Year. Plans of more than a dozen more MCDs have been approved till date. An inter-ministerial Task Force constituted to devise an appropriate strategy and action plan for developing 338 identified towns, having substantial minority population, rapidly in a holistic manner submitted its report on 8th November, 2007. The concerned Ministries/Departments have been advised to schreyers honors 2012, give priority towards implementation of their schemes in 338 towns. Economic factor being an important tool in the upliftment of business names a community, all public sector banks have been directed to open more branches in districts having a substantial minority population. In 2007-08, 523 branches were opened in such districts.

In 2008-09, 524 new branches were opened. Reserve Bank of India revised its Master Circular on 5th July, 2007 on priority sector lending for improving credit facilities to minority communities. Rs 82864 crore were provided to minorities under priority sector lending during 2008-09. District Consultative Committees (DCCs) of lead banks have been directed to regularly monitor disposal and case study paper, rejection of loan applications from minorities. The Government has accorded ‘in principle’ approval for restructuring of National. Minorities Development and Finance Corporation: A National Data Bank, to wedding names, compile data on google case study analysis, the various socio-economic and basic amenities parameters for socio-religious communities, has been set up in the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. An autonomous Assessment Monitoring Authority (AMA), to analyse data collected for planning names, taking appropriate and exercises for depression, corrective policy decisions, has been set up in the Planning Commission.

A training module has been developed by the Indian Institute of Public Administration, for sensitization of government officials. The module has been sent to the Central/ State Training Institutes for implementation. Lai Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA) has prepared a module for sensitization of wedding business organized civil services and campaign finance essay questions, it has been incorporated in their training programmes. Under Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for planning names, Small and Medium Towns (UIDSSMT), additional central assistance of Rs 1602.20 crore has been sanctioned for 69 towns having substantial minority population, out of which Rs.659.37 crore was released in 2008-09. A High Level Committee, set up to review the media, Delimitation Act, has considered the concerns expressed in the Sachar Committee report and submitted its report. Guidelines on wedding planning business names, Communal Harmony have been issued by the Ministry of Home Affairs.

Dissemination of information regarding health and family welfare schemes is being undertaken in exercises for depression regional languages in minority concentration areas. State Governments and UTs have been advised by Department of Personnel Training for posting of Muslim police personnel in wedding business names thanas and Muslim health personnel and teachers in women media essays Muslim concentration areas. State Governments have been advised by Ministry of Panchayati Raj and Ministry of Urban Development, to improve representation of minorities in local bodies. The recommendations of the Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) on Wakfs have been received. These have been processed as per approved modalities. An expert group constituted to study and recommend the structure and functions of an Equal Opportunity Commission submitted its report on 13th March, 2008.

This has been processed, along with the report of the expert group on diversity index, as per the approved modalities. To meet the ever growing need for ameliorating the wedding, condition of minorities, and Muslim community in particular, the Annual Plan allocation for the Ministry of Minority Affair is has been increased substantially to Rs 1,740 crore for the year 2009-10. The issue of reservation has remained a cause of disagreement between the schreyers honors college essays 2012, reserved and the non- reserved sections of the society. While the unreserved segments, keep on opposing the provision, the neediest sections from within the reserved segments are hardly aware about how to get benefited from the provision or even whether there are such provisions. On the contrary, the creamy layer among the wedding business, same segment is enjoying special privileges in gradstudies the name of reservation and wedding business, political factions are supporting them for in the media, vote banks. Reservation is no doubt good, as far as it is a method of appropriate positive discrimination for the benefit of the downtrodden and wedding names, economically backward Sections o, the society but when it tends to questions, harm the society and planning names, ensures privileges for some at the cost of others for narrow political ends, as it is in the present form, it should be done away with, as soon possible. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes. #8220;A resume should be treated as one of your major design jobs. The typeface you use, the layout, etc all show exactly what level of design you are at. Every detail counts, and the sum of wedding business names, these details gives an impression of you as a designer.#8221; Self-promotion is best for depression essential to a graphic designer#8217;s success. As a creative, expertly branding and marketing yourself is the path to reaching career goals, whether that is to be an wedding planning business names Art Director for an in-house firm or establishing a lucrative freelance design business. Crafting an campaign eye-catching and memorable resume is major component of your self-promotion strategy. As a designer, your resume design needs to names showcase your talent and epitomize your personal brand. It is the perfect opportunity to define you as a designer and to create a unique personal brand.

When constructing a resume, you#8217;ll need to establish a personal brand identity that highlights your strengths and finance questions emphasizes the breadth of your abilities. At the names 2014 HOW Live Design Conference, brand expert Robin Landa discussed the importance of building a personal brand. Watch this clip from her presentation, #8220;How to Build Your Own Brand — A 10-Step Guide,#8221; for some professional insight on how to start thinking about the best for depression brand identity development process. To view the wedding business rest of Robin#8217;s presentation, download it here. 10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes. Find resume design inspiration from the in the media graphic designer resumes below. These designs showcase each designer#8217;s creativity and professional experience, leveraging unique presentation techniques for a memorable final product. Infographic Resume Design in a Tube. This top-of-the-pile resume package brought designer Kenny Barela#8216;s personality and work to life. This project was honored as the Best of Show winner in the 2010 HOW Promotion Design Awards. Planning? Learn more about the project here, or enter your own work into this year#8217;s competition.

Learn more about infographic design in How to Make an Infographic , an analysis online course with John T. Planning Business Names? Meyer of essays 2012, visual design firm Lemonly. About: #8220;Final project of the discipline #8216;Creativity and Innovation#8217; at Graduate Diploma in Design Management. The goal was to create an unconventional resume in an innovative platform. Wedding Planning Business? All the informations about the student were placed in a cardboard package as if they were texts from a product (sic).#8221; See more. Best Practices for gradstudies coursework Graphic Designers, Packaging: An essential guide for implementing effective package design solutions by planning business names Grip guides you through the entire packaging process from strategy and great for cv concept development, through selecting suitable materials, naming systems, considering the competition, assessing the shelf landscape and wedding business more.

Personal Graphic Designer Resume and Self-Promotion. #8220;This is my resume I#8217;ve been using for the past year, showing my skills, work experience, education other information.#8221; See more. #8220;Top Secret#8221; Resume Job Application. #8220;A combined resume and schreyers honors essays 2012 open job application formed as a humorous #8216;Top Secret#8217; report, giving away information about a #8216;newly educated and creative designer, who have settled in the city.#8217; This is a self promotion project that were made to display a variety of wedding planning, skills as a graphic designer and get attention from local design agencies after i finished my studies.#8221; Read more. Self-Branding and Creative Resume Design. Best? #8220;I took a fair amount of time to design something that will represent me while I#8217;m not there! I took a lot of care to make it respond to my style and personality. It#8217;s all handmade and printed using a normal domestic printer.#8221; See more. Graphic Designer Resume Business Cards. Follow the Red Line: Brochure CV/Resume Design. To learn more about the writing aspect to crafting an wedding planning eye-catching graphic designer resume, check out The Graphic Designer#8217;s Guide to Better Business Writing . Essay Questions? This handy guide breaks the wedding business writing process down into women in the, simple, easy-to-understand stages and offers practical writing and planning names presentation models that designers can put to use immediately.

Real-life examples cover an array of honors college essays 2012, essential topics: writing winning resumes and cover letters, landing accounts, writing polished letters and reports, creating design briefs, and much more. Wedding Business? Discover how to start a successful design business with this webcast, 5 Secrets to Launching a Creative Business . This hour-long webcast discusses how to take the first step in personal creating a business, how to avoid the barriers that block success and how to make your passion profitable. Wedding? Whether you#8217;re a Designer, Photographer, Writer or Video Producer, this session can help you move forward with confidence that you can have the success you#8217;ve been trying to schreyers essays 2012 create for yourself. 9 thoughts on business names “ 10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes ” These are all great. I like the best for depression one that can be formed into a carton especially. I#8217;m always surprised at planning, how clever people can be. One caveat I think these designs would work nicely for the interview, or for a smaller firm.

However, I can#8217;t imagine that any of these crafty designs would get past an ATS (Applicant Tracking System. All these resumes are truly impressive but let#8217;s face it, they aren#8217;t really functional unless for the candidates who are willing to get hired as art directors or packaging designers maybe. But for the rest of us, we obviously need more subtle design while still being creative. Here are some great examples of CV#8217;s that are not #8220;too much#8221; but will still get you noticed: Creative Resumes. I particularly like the 7th on the list. I would have to essay questions agree with James Rich, all these resumes look great but they are hardly usable for most of us.

With that said, a professional resume doesn#8217;t have to be boring. Have a look at these Fancy CV templates. There are some brilliant ideas out planning there! We would like to share with our Free resume. Everything is carefully layered, so it#8217;s super easy to edit and use. https://www.behance.net/gallery/28935295/FREE-Resume-Template. Check out best for depression this resume pack I found too! Its like a crossover between something really creative and something sort of traditional.. So easy to use also.. Have a look here: https://creativemarket.com/3Angle/605445-The-Complete-Resume-Collection. You would want to business have a look at http://www.cvdesigner.in to get some awesome resumes made.

They are nice but#8230;I did a those type of things in the late 80#8217;s early 90#8217;s, even did one that I used the schreyers honors college essays 2012 ADWEEK magazine cover but it said ADD me this WEEK designed like their logo. Planning Business? Todays designs should incorporate more and with new technologies, be more innovative, incorporating those elements. I try #8220;Lenka Kubisova#8221; did it#8217;s simple but so much clean and professional. I#8217;m STUNNED at for depression, the level of personal information that is shared#8230; Photos, Height, Dress preferences, Marital status#8230;. You NEVER NEVER put that on planning names a resume. Gradstudies? It#8217;s illegal for an employer to ask for a photo (and all the other personal information) in connection with a job application so why would you include it? It might make the HR department very uncomfortable. Planning Names? You must be logged in to google case study analysis post a comment. Handlettering Experiments – Textures. Want to get your hands dirty exploring some analogue letter-making techniques? This course is for you.

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canada and ww1 essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.

Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Business Names. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Women In The Media Essays. Germany declared war on France on wedding, 3 August and invaded Belgium.

France was invaded on google case study, 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of planning business names, these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to honors college essays 2012 allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the wedding names, fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the great, fateful decisions for planning names, war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an great personal for cv, attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.

Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. Wedding Planning Names. The states who embarked on the road to war in honors 2012 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the wedding business, consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to schreyers honors essays defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and wedding, military strength of their German neighbours.

France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to google analysis paper defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of planning names, all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to google case study patriotic values.

Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. Business. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Personal Statements. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and planning business, sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to gradstudies coursework join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by wedding planning, the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation.

The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to campaign finance essay suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and business, world-wide dilemmas.

They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the for cv, dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for wedding planning business names, the defence of schreyers honors, India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in wedding planning business names a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Personal Statements For Cv. Here the war became characterized by wedding planning business, increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.

Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and campaign essay, heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in wedding planning names the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the personal statements, left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an wedding planning names, offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Google Case Paper. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the wedding business names, historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to in the media essays retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to business the Swiss frontier.

Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to women media positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of wedding planning business names, France's military casualties were incurred in best 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps.

German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from names, November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the best exercises for depression, French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans.

The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and business, the absence of achievement. Great Personal Statements For Cv. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the wedding business, Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the campaign finance questions, rest of planning, 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.

Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the gradstudies coursework, German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. Wedding. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. Coursework. They enjoyed spectacular success. Planning Business. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out.

The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the campaign finance, German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the wedding business names, Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and honors college, Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Business Names. Artillery densities were correspondingly less.

Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the google case study paper, start of the names, war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the honors college essays 2012, security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of wedding, Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk.

These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Coursework. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against planning, Russia in Galicia; against Italy in great personal statements for cv the Trentino. Planning Business Names. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Great For Cv. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.

Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of wedding, 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of gradstudies, 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to planning business keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from best for depression, certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. Planning. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.

In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from exercises, their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in wedding planning business names a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.

On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Gradstudies. Austrian retreat turned into rout and wedding business names, then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of women in the essays, servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to planning operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the honors, biggest internment camp in wedding business names Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of schreyers, Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and wedding, disease.

The British attempted to campaign essay questions knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in wedding names April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of essays 2012, stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Wedding. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to statements the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by planning business names, Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine.

Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in personal for cv West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by names, the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over case 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy.

Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the wedding planning, south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the google case study analysis paper, Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and planning, the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and campaign, sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.

The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to business control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Gradstudies. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of planning business, compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the campaign finance, military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to wedding planning names replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Best Exercises For Depression. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted.

Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of names, international law and in great personal statements defence of the wedding planning business, rights of small nations. Finance. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and names, military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Google Study Analysis Paper. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.

No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short.

They were also instrumental. Wedding Planning. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of for cv, their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on wedding planning, the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to essay achieve victory through knock-out blows.

Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and business, was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by schreyers honors college, the fear of a war on two fronts, against business names, France in great statements for cv the west and Russia in wedding names the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.

A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the case study, other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to business names receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into google analysis, the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into wedding, the field in fifteen days.

The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for best, the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the wedding names, war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs.

As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of great statements for cv, Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of wedding planning business names, Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over google case study paper the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the business names, fundamental strategic reality of the college essays 2012, war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the wedding planning, commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from campaign finance essay questions, two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.

The second was Great Britain. Wedding Planning. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in questions Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of wedding planning business names, coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the women in the, substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin.

The failure to develop effective mechanisms of wedding planning, strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to coursework turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the wedding, Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly.

The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in gradstudies the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into names, the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the best for depression, world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into wedding planning names, the field on in the media essays, the outbreak of planning names, war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized.

Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and women, most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and business, psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to gradstudies coursework evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to business 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. Women Media Essays. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance.

The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.

British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on wedding planning business names, the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of gradstudies, all proportion to their size.

The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of wedding planning, national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the women in the, French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement.

He immediately sought to planning raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to schreyers honors 2012 arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. Business Names. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable.

The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the honors college essays, war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and wedding planning business, David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front.

They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in schreyers honors college the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by wedding, the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and schreyers college, Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to wedding planning control Allied reserves.

Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Exercises For Depression. Only then was it replaced by wedding, a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of in the media, economic, social, and political change.

Europe in business 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time.

Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and case analysis, deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the wedding, first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of study paper, it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to wedding planning offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the great statements, offensive in the face of planning business, huge losses.

As a result the great personal, opening battles of the wedding names, war were closer in conception and execution to honors essays 2012 those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. Wedding Planning Business Names. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by in the media, the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of wedding business, education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground.

Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to coursework be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. Wedding Planning Business Names. The major tactical problem of the women media essays, war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Wedding Business. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on google study, telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and wedding names, infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of study analysis, infantry and planning business names, artillery was very difficult and google case analysis, often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness.

Artillery was not only wedding planning business names, a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in campaign finance questions large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the business, cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of coursework, supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed.

In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to planning names suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and best, smoke.

The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and planning business, keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. Gradstudies Coursework. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in business a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the campaign finance questions, instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the names, western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational.

As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. College Essays 2012. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to wedding planning business names make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and honors college, destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and wedding, artillery. This system allowed the Germans to campaign finance survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on wedding, the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies.

The German system required intelligent and schreyers essays 2012, well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. Planning. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of case analysis paper, resistance and advance deep into planning names, the enemy's rear. Campaign. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Names. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the coursework, momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of business, Allied material technology. The material solution to finance the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone.

It depended on planning, the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. Case Study. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of planning business, France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from google study analysis, 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states.

The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and planning, West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the honors college 2012, Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old.

The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to planning business do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on gradstudies coursework, industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of wedding, demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in schreyers essays 2012 the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy.

Prodigies of production were achieved. Wedding Planning. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. Essay Questions. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of wedding planning, old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and gradstudies coursework, aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and wedding planning business, the SPAD VII.

Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to schreyers honors college essays 2012 this was the planning, equality of honors essays, access to planning names food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to campaign essay questions command the agricultural resources of planning business, North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. Google Case Analysis Paper. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.

There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to wedding planning business names produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in best Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. Planning Names. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the campaign essay questions, Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.

They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and planning names, Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. Essays 2012. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924.

The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and wedding planning business names, imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. Schreyers Honors College Essays 2012. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to wedding planning names go their own way. The stirrings of schreyers honors essays 2012, revolt in India were apparent as soon as the planning names, war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. Great Personal Statements. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral.

The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.

Copyright © 1997 by wedding planning business names, Oxford University Press.