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Mutations in VANGL1 Associated with Neural-Tube Defects. Zoha Kibar, Ph.D., Elena Torban, Ph.D., Jonathan R. McDearmid, Ph.D., Annie Reynolds, M.Sc., Joanne Berghout, B.Sc., Melissa Mathieu, B.Sc., Irena Kirillova, Ph.D., Patrizia De Marco, Ph.D., Elisa Merello, Ph.D., Julie M. Hayes, B.A., John B. Wallingford, Ph.D., Pierre Drapeau, Ph.D., Valeria Capra, M.D., and Philippe Gros, Ph.D. N Engl J Med 2007; 356:1432-1437 April 5, 2007 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa060651. Neural-tube defects such as anencephaly and essay on advantages and disadvantages, spina bifida constitute a group of common congenital malformations caused by complex genetic and environmental factors. Values Essays. We have identified three mutations in essay games the VANGL1 gene in patients with familial types (V239I and R274Q) and a sporadic type (M328T) of the disease, including a spontaneous mutation (V239I) appearing in a familial setting. In a protein–protein interaction assay V239I abolished interaction of VANGL1 protein with its binding partners, disheveled-1, -2, and -3. These findings implicate VANGL1 as a risk factor in human neural-tube defects. Neural-tube defects affect 1 to 2 infants per 1000 births 1 and are caused by a partial or complete failure of the neural tube to close during embryogenesis.
1 The most common forms of neural-tube defects are described as open defects (including anencephaly and myelomeningocele, or spina bifida), which result from the failure of fusion in the cranial and spinal region of the neural tube, respectively. Cold Call Cover. 1 Other open dysraphisms (including myeloschisis, hemimyelomeningocele, and hemimyelocele) are sometimes associated with a Chiari II malformation. A number of skin-covered (closed) neural-tube defects are categorized clinically depending on of computer games the presence of a subcutaneous mass (lipomyeloschisis, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele, and myelocystocele) or the absence of such a mass (complex dysraphic states, including split cord malformations, dermal sinus, caudal regression, and movie and book essay, segmental spinal dysgenesis). 2 All infants with anencephaly are stillborn or die shortly after birth, whereas many infants with spina bifida now survive but with severe disabilities. And Disadvantages Games. 1.
Maternal periconceptional supplementation of folic acid reduces the incidence of paper, neural-tube defects by 50 to 70%. 3 Polymorphic variants in genes of the folate and essay on advantages and disadvantages games, homocysteine pathways have been associated with an cold cover email, increased risk of essay of computer games, neural-tube defects, including a common variant (C677T) in the MTHFR gene (5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase). Values Essays. 3 However, population- and family-based studies indicate a complex multigenic cause of neural-tube defects. 1 Although no causative gene has been identified in humans, mutated Vangl2 is present in the Loop-tail ( Lp ) mouse mutant 4,5 with a severe defect known as craniorachischisis. 6 Vangl2 is the essay and disadvantages mammalian homologue of the and contrast essay drosophila (fly) gene Stbm/Vang, which is required for establishing planar cell polarity in the developing eye, wing, and essay on advantages and disadvantages, leg tissues. 7,8. In the fly, planar cell polarity is controlled by a membrane-associated signaling complex composed of several proteins, including Stbm/Vang, frizzled (Fz), disheveled (Dvl), flamingo (Fmi), and prickle (Pk). Activation of write findings paper, planar cell polarity involves an essay of computer, asymmetric redistribution of these core proteins in values essays which cytoplasmic Dvl and on advantages and disadvantages, Pk are recruited to the plasma membrane, forming complexes with Fz and Stbm/Vang, respectively. 9 In vertebrates, a second VANGL gene ( VANGL1 ) has been described. Research Paper. VANGL1 and VANGL2 proteins are highly similar.
Each has four predicted transmembrane domains and essay, a cytoplasmic domain that includes a PDZ-binding motif that mediates protein–protein interaction. 10 In mice, Vangl1 and research, Vangl2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are expressed in the ventral and dorsal portions of the developing neural tube, respectively. 11. We tested the hypothesis that mutations in the VANGL1 and VANGL2 genes cause neural-tube defects and abrogate the physical interaction of the VANGL1 protein and disheveled proteins. This study included 144 patients with neural-tube defects, including 137 Italian patients with nonsyndromic spinal dysraphisms who were recruited at the Spina Bifida Center of the Gaslini Hospital in Genoa and 7 fetuses with craniorachischisis that were obtained from Groupe Hopitalier Necker-Enfants Malades in Paris. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Computer. The Spina Bifida Center of Gaslini Hospital has recruited children with neural-tube defects since 1976, mainly from the north and compare/contrast movie essay, south of Italy. All mothers of Italian patients lacked periconceptional supplementation of folic acid. Thirteen of the Italian patients had a positive family history documented by clinical records — including findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiography, which were obtained from parents of essay on advantages, patients — whereas all other patients had sporadic disease ( Table 1 Table 1 Characteristics of the values essays Patients. , and essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer, Table 1 of the Supplementary Appendix, which is movie essay, available with the full text of this article at www.nejm.org). The control group consisted of 106 unrelated, randomly selected children who had been admitted to the Gaslini Children's Hospital for miscellaneous illnesses and healthy young adults who had contributed samples to the blood bank of the Gaslini Institute. None of the patients had a first-degree relative with a neural-tube defect. The samples from all control subjects were anonymous.
Information associated with these samples included sex, region of essay games, birth, and age. All patients and control subjects were Italian with ancestors from all parts of the country, as determined during genetic-counseling sessions. Policy Outline. The experimental protocol was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients or their parents. We analyzed additional samples from 65 subjects in essay and disadvantages games the control group obtained from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) repository, which contains samples from French, Venezuelan, and cold call cover letter email, Amish persons and also persons from Utah with northwestern European ancestry. The coding exons of on advantages and disadvantages of computer games, VANGL1 (National Center for and contrast between, Biotechnology Information accession number, NM_138959) were amplified by essay polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay from genomic DNA with the use of compare/contrast, primers flanking the essay on advantages and disadvantages exon–intron junctions, as described previously. 4 Primer sequences are available from the compare/contrast movie authors on on advantages and disadvantages of computer request.
The PCR products were purified with the use of a Qiaquick PCR purification kit (Qiagen) and were sequenced with the use of the BigDye Terminator V2.0 cycle sequencing kit and write findings research paper, an automated ABI 3700 instrument (Applied Biosystems). All mutations were verified by the dideoxynucleotide termination method and on advantages games, 33 P sequencing with the policy research use of the Thermo Sequenase radiolabeled terminator cycle sequencing kit (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech). Physical interactions between human VANGL1 and and disadvantages, disheveled proteins were monitored as described previously. 10 For details, see the Methods section of the Supplementary Appendix. We identified three Italian patients who were heterozygotic for missense mutations in VANGL1 (V239I, R274Q, and email, M328T). Essay And Disadvantages Of Computer Games. These mutations were predicted to affect amino acid residues that are conserved across members of the VANGL family. We did not detect these variants in ancestrally matched controls or in CEPH controls. We observed V239I and R274Q in two patients with familial types of disease (Patient 103 and call cover email, Patient 48, respectively) and M328T in a patient with a sporadic type (Patient 151).
The remaining 11 patients with familial types of a neural-tube defect did not carry any disease-specific mutation in the open reading frame of essay on advantages, VANGL1 . We identified eight other sequence variants in the open reading frame of VANGL1 that were silent (that is, they did not change the policy research predicted amino acid), that were present in both patients with neural-tube defects and control subjects, or that did not affect highly conserved residues (Table 2 of the and disadvantages of computer games Supplementary Appendix). On the other hand, we sequenced VANGL2 in both series of patients and identified several variants but none that were predicted to affect protein sequence (data not shown and in agreement with previous findings). 11. We detected a missense mutation in values essays VANGL1 that is predicted to result in essay on advantages the substitution of valine with isoleucine at cover letter, position 239 (V239I) in Patient 103, a 10-year-old Italian girl who had a severe form of caudal regression (type IV of sacral agenesis, according to essay and disadvantages Pang's classification 12 ) with lipomyeloschisis, anorectal malformation, hydromelia, and tethered spinal cord (Table 1 of the Supplementary Appendix). The girl's mother showed no clinical signs of neural-tube defect, and values essays, her brother had a milder form of the on advantages of computer games disease, dermal sinus.
V239I was present in the brother and mother of Patient 103 and values essays, was absent in the father and maternal aunt. However, the maternal grandparents did not carry the essay and disadvantages games mutation, indicating that it had arisen de novo in the germ line of one of the maternal grandparents or somatically in compare essay two teachers the mother and was subsequently transmitted through the mother's germ line ( Figure 1A Figure 1 VANGL1 Mutations Associated with Neural-Tube Defects. The familial pedigrees are shown for on advantages and disadvantages, Patient 103 (Panel A) and Patient 48 (Panel B), who carry the V239I (715G>A) and R274Q (821G>A) mutations, respectively. Patient 103 (arrow) was affected with lipomyeloschisis, hydromyelia, and caudal regression. Her brother was affected with dermal sinus (patterned box). V239I was present in the brother and mother and absent in the father and the maternal aunt and and contrast between two teachers, grandparents. Essay And Disadvantages Of Computer Games. Patient 48 (arrow) was affected with lumbosacral myelomeningocele (L5–S1) and between, hydrocephalus. Her mother and maternal aunt were affected with vertebral schisis (dotted circles). R274Q was present in the mother and absent in the father.
Panel C shows a topologic model of VANGL1 with the approximate positions of V239I, R274Q, and M328T indicated. Panel D shows a partial alignment of on advantages, VANGL1 with 10 other vertebrate and invertebrate Stbm/Vangl sequences. Residues that are conserved between VANGL1 and other VANGL proteins are highlighted. VANGL1 substitutions of V239I (left), R274Q (center), and M328T (right) that are found in compare essay between two teachers patients with neural-tube defects affect conserved residues (indicated by arrows). National Center for Biotechnology Information accession numbers are NP_620409 for essay on advantages of computer games, VANGL1, XP_049695 for compare, VANGL2, NP_277044 for mouse (m) Vangl2, XP_222896 for rat (r) Vangl2, AAK70879 for xenopus (x) Vangl2, AAL30891 for zebrafish (z) Vangl2, AK113083 for ascidian (as) Vangl2, NP_477177 for drosophila (d) Stbm/Vang, EAA00250 for African malaria mosquito (ma) Stbm, and NP_508500 for Caenorhabditis elegans (ce) Stbm.
The protein sequence of mouse Vangl1 was initially reported by Wolff and Rubin in 1998. 8 ). Additional genotyping confirmed paternity, maternity, and DNA authenticity in all family members (including the paternity and maternity of the mother of the proband) from whom DNA was available (not shown). Valine at on advantages of computer games, position 239 is in the fourth predicted transmembrane domain of the values essays VANGL1 protein ( Figure 1C ). And Disadvantages Of Computer. It is invariant and part of a “VLLE” motif, which is conserved across all known Vangl proteins ( Figure 1D ). Although a substitution with isoleucine preserves the hydrophobic character of valine, it introduces a bulky side chain, which may have structural or functional consequences. We identified a missense mutation that is predicted to result in the substitution of glutamine for arginine at position 274 (R274Q) in and book essay Patient 48, a 19-year-old Italian girl who had myelomeningocele (level L5–S1), hydrocephalus, and congenital club feet (Table 1 of the Supplementary Appendix). Her mother and maternal aunt had vertebral schisis, a minimal sign of a neural-tube defect. R274Q was present in the mother but not in the father (DNA samples from the and disadvantages of computer patient's maternal aunt and brother were not available for values essays, analysis) ( Figure 1B ). R274Q is in the cytoplasmic domain of VANGL1 ( Figure 1C ). It is invariant in all known orthologues (genes in two or more species that have evolved from a common ancestor) except that of Caenorhabditis elegans, in which it is essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer games, replaced by compare/contrast movie essay glutamate ( Figure 1D ). Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages. Although a substitution of glutamate in the C. Values Essays. elegans orthologue is nonconservative, it preserves the essay on advantages of computer charged character of arginine, a physical property that is movie, not preserved by substitution with glutamine. We detected a missense mutation that is predicted to result in the substitution of methionine with threonine at position 328 (M328T) in essay games a 21-year-old woman with sporadic disease; she had myelomeningocele (level L3–S1), hydrocephalus, Chiari II malformation, tethered spinal cord, club feet, lumbosacral scoliosis, and sacrococcygeal kyphosis. M328T is also in the predicted cytoplasmic domain of VANGL1 ( Figure 1C ). The hydrophobic character of methionine is conserved at this position across evolution ( Figure 1D ). Movie. M328T is not a conservative substitution because threonine contains a hydroxyl side chain that substantially increases the hydrophilicity at this position. Mouse Vangl1 and Vangl2 proteins physically interact with cytoplasmic Dvl1, Dvl2, and Dvl3; in mice, Lp -associated mutations of Vangl2 disrupt this interaction. 10 Therefore, we tested the essay ability of V239I, R274Q, and compare and contrast, M328T variants of VANGL1 to interact with the Dvl proteins with use of the yeast two-hybrid system.
All VANGL1 and Dvl constructs were stably expressed at similar levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( Figure 2A Figure 2 Interaction of Human VANGL1 Variants with Disheveled Proteins in a Yeast Two-Hybrid System. Panel A shows immunoblotting of wild-type and mutant (V239I, R274Q, M328T, D259E, and S467N) VANGL1 variants (cytoplasmic domain, positions 243–526) expressed in yeast cells with a monoclonal antibody directed against a c- myc epitope engineered at the N-terminal of VANGL1 proteins. N-terminal segments of Dvl proteins (positions 1–404 of Dvl1-5, positions 1–418 of Dvl2-5, and positions 1–395 of Dvl3-5) consisting of the DIX and PDZ domains and a C-terminal segment corresponding to and disadvantages games the DEP domains of Dvl3 (positions 389–717 of Dvl3-3) were detected with the use of a monoclonal antibody against an HA epitope present in cold call cover letter email all Dvl constructs, as well as in the control pGAD vector (pGAD). Essay On Advantages Games. In Panel B, diploid cells, produced by mating cells Dvl (rows) and compare essay, VANGL1-expressing yeast cells (columns), were plated on a medium of essay on advantages games, increasing stringency of selection to detect interaction (growth). Toefl Essay. The medium labeled ?Leu/?Trp lacks leucine and tryptophan and supports the growth of diploid cells without a requirement for protein interaction. The medium labeled –His/–Leu/–Trp (which lacks histidine, leucine, and tryptophan) and the medium labeled –Ade/–His/–Leu/–Trp (which lacks adenine, histidine, leucine, and on advantages and disadvantages games, tryptophan) support the and contrast essay between two teachers growth of and disadvantages, diploid cells only if proteins interact.
Interaction between the various Dvl and VANGL chimeras was verified by measuring the activity of values essays, ?-galactosidase (Panel C) and ?-galactosidase (Panel D), as described previously. 10 The I bars indicate standard deviations. Essay And Disadvantages Of Computer. ). Our results indicate that VANGL1 interacts with the N-terminal half of Dvl proteins and that this interaction is disrupted either completely (D259E) or partially (S467N) by Lp -associated mutations ( Figure 2B ). The V239I mutation in values essays VANGL1 abrogated interaction between VANGL1 and all three Dvl proteins, whereas R274Q and M238T had no apparent effect on this interaction in this assay ( Figure 2B ). We obtained similar results regardless of the “reporter” of this interaction (the secretion of ?-galactosidase or the production of ?-galactosidase) in diploid yeast cells ( Figure 2C and 2D ). We have identified three VANGL1 mutations (V239I, R274Q, and M328T) in patients with sporadic and familial neural-tube defects. These three mutations affect residues conserved in Vangl proteins across species. Our findings contrast with those of a previous study in on advantages and disadvantages which no disease-specific mutation was identified in VANGL1 in policy research outline a group of 66 patients with neural-tube defects. 11. The phenotype associated with V239I varied among patients. This finding is essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer games, consistent with the proposed multifactorial model for compare and contrast between, neural-tube defects; V239I probably has a partial or complete loss-of-function effect and on advantages and disadvantages games, interacts with other genetic loci or unknown environmental factors to modulate the incidence and severity of the values essays defect.
Notably, the essay of computer games mother of the proband with the V239I de novo mutation also had the mutation (de novo) but no phenotype for a neural-tube defect, possibly reflecting mosaicism (with respect to compare and contrast essay between cells carrying the mutation) or variable penetrance or expressivity. At the biochemical level, V239I abolishes the interaction of VANGL1 with Dvl proteins, which may compromise the recruitment of Dvl to the plasma membrane and thus perturb molecular signaling during gastrulation and neural-tube closure. Noncoding regulatory polymorphisms in essay and disadvantages of computer games VANGL1, particularly regulatory variants modulating the level of gene transcription, could also confer susceptibility to neural-tube defects. A thorough analysis of the cover letter email promoter region of VANGL1 in our series of patients may uncover additional mutations predisposing to essay on advantages games the condition. However, the identification of such polymorphisms is challenging in the absence of detailed information on cis -acting sequence elements that regulate temporal and tissue-specific expression of computer essay, VANGL1 during embryogenesis. Our results are consistent with studies that underscore the critical role of core planar-cell-polarity genes ( Vangl2, Celsr1, Dvl, and Fz ) in controlling convergent extension, a process necessary for essay on advantages games, neural-tube closure. 4,5,13-16 Moreover, it was shown that mutations in Ptk7 interact genetically with Vangl2 in mice that are heterozygous for paper, both mutations and consequently develop neural-tube defects.
17 Studying the essay and disadvantages of computer effect of periconceptional supplementation with folic acid, inositol, and methionine on computer essay the emergence of neural-tube defects in essay games these mutants may shed further light on the preventive mechanism associated with these nutrients. Additional tests of compare/contrast and book, association between mutated VANGL1 and neural-tube defects in humans is and disadvantages of computer games, warranted, as is the systematic genetic and biochemical testing of the other members of the planar-cell-polarity signaling pathway for a role in the cause of this disease. Supported by write findings a Career Award from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund (to Dr. Wallingford), by and disadvantages of computer games a grant from the Gaslini Foundation (to Dr. Capra), by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and by grants from the values essays Canadian Institute for Health Research, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council, Genome Quebec, and Genome Canada (to Drs. Drapeau and essay and disadvantages of computer games, Gros). No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported. We thank all the patients who participated in write findings research paper this study; the Spina Bifida Association of Italy; and T. Attie-Bitach and M. Vekemans of Hopital Necker–Enfants Malades, Paris, for their assistance with the craniorachischisis samples. From the Department of and disadvantages, Biochemistry, McGill University (Z.K., E.T., J.B., M.M., P.G.), and the Centre for Research in Neuroscience, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, and the Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, University of Montreal (J.R.M., A.R., P.D.) — all in Montreal; the Institute of Hereditary Diseases, Minsk, Belarus (I.K.); Unita Operativa di Neurochirurgia, Istituto G. Gaslini, Genoa, Italy (P.D.M., E.M., V.C.); and the Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of compare/contrast essay, Texas, Austin (J.M.H., J.B.W.). Address reprints requests to Dr.
Gros at essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer games, the Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, 3655 Promenade Sir William Osler, Rm. 907, Montreal, QC H3G 1Y6, Canada, or at values essays, email@example.com. Copp AJ , Greene NDE , Murdoch JN . The genetic basis of mammalian neurulation. Nat Rev Genet 2003;4:784-793. Tortori-Donati P , Rossi A , Cama A . Spinal dysraphism: a review of essay and disadvantages of computer, neuroradiological features with embryological correlation and toefl essay, proposal for games, a new classification. Neuroradiology 2000;42:471-491. van der Linden IJ , Afman LA , Heil SG , Blom HJ . Genetic variation in movie genes of on advantages and disadvantages games, folate metabolism and neural-tube defect risk. Proc Nutr Soc 2006;65:204-215. Kibar Z , Vogan KJ , Groulx N , Justice MJ , Underhill DA , Gros P . Values Essays. Ltap, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila Strabismus/Van Gogh, is altered in on advantages and disadvantages games the mouse neural tube defect mutant Loop-tail.
Nat Genet 2001;28:251-255. Murdoch JN , Doudney K , Paternotte C , Copp AJ , Stanier P . Essay. Severe neural tube defects in on advantages and disadvantages of computer games the loop-tail mouse result from mutation of Lpp1, a novel gene involved in essay floor plate specification. Hum Mol Genet 2001;10:2593-2601. Stein KF , Rudin IA . Development of and disadvantages of computer games, mice homozygous for the gene for Looptail. J Hered 1953;44:59-69. Taylor J , Abramova N , Charlton J , Adler PN . Van Gogh: a new Drosophila tissue polarity gene. Genetics 1998;150:199-210. Wolff T , Rubin GM . Strabismus, a novel gene that regulates tissue polarity and cell fate decisions in research outline Drosophila.
Development 1998;125:1149-1159. Strutt H , Strutt D . Long-range coordination of planar polarity in Drosophila. Bioessays 2005;27:1218-1227. Torban E , Wang H-J , Groulx N , Gros P . Independent mutations in mouse Vangl2 that cause neural tube defects in looptail mice impair interaction with members of the Dishevelled family. J Biol Chem 2004;279:52703-52713.
Doudney K , Ybot-Gonzalez P , Paternotte C , et al. Analysis of the planar cell polarity gene Vangl2 and its co-expressed paralogue Vangl1 in neural tube defect patients. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Games. Am J Med Genet A 2005;136:90-92[Erratum, Am J Med Genet A 2005;138:415.] Pang D . Write Research Paper. Sacral agenesis and caudal spinal cord malformations. On Advantages Of Computer. Neurosurgery 1993;32:755-779. Curtin JA , Quint E , Tsipouri V , et al. Mutation of Celsr1 disrupts planar polarity of essay between two teachers, inner ear hair cells and causes severe neural tube defects in essay of computer the mouse. Research Paper Outline. Curr Biol 2003;13:1129-1133.
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J Neurosci 2006;26:2147-2156. Lu X , Borchers AG , Jolicoeur C , Rayburn H , Baker JC , Tessier-Lavigne M . PTK7/CCK-4 is a novel regulator of compare, planar cell polarity in vertebrates. Nature 2004;430:93-98. Shuyuan Chen, Qin Zhang, Baoling Bai, Shengrong Ouyang, Yihua Bao, Huili Li, Ting Zhang. . (2017) MARK2/Par1b Insufficiency Attenuates DVL Gene Transcription via Histone Deacetylation in Lumbosacral Spina Bifida. Molecular Neurobiology 54 :8, 6304-6316. Zhiwen Shi, Xueyan Yang, Bin-Bin Li, Shuxia Chen, Luming Yang, Liangping Cheng, Ting Zhang, Hongyan Wang, Yufang Zheng. . Essay On Advantages Games. (2017) Novel Mutation of LRP6 Identified in Chinese Han Population Links Canonical WNT Signaling to Neural Tube Defects. Birth Defects Research 7 . Andre M. And Contrast Essay Between. Goffinet, Fadel Tissir. . (2017) Seven pass Cadherins CELSR1-3.
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Developmental Dynamics 240 :10.1002/dvdy.v240.4, 839-849. Justin Hogan, Meagan Valentine, Chris Cox, Kristy Doyle, Simon Collier, Eric Rulifson. . (2011) Two Frizzled Planar Cell Polarity Signals in the Drosophila Wing Are Differentially Organized by research paper the Fat/Dachsous Pathway. PLoS Genetics 7 :2, e1001305. Bo Gao, Hai Song, Kevin Bishop, Gene Elliot, Lisa Garrett, Milton A. English, Philipp Andre, James Robinson, Raman Sood, Yasuhiro Minami, Aris N. Essay On Advantages Games. Economides, Yingzi Yang. . (2011) Wnt Signaling Gradients Establish Planar Cell Polarity by Inducing Vangl2 Phosphorylation through Ror2. Values Essays. Developmental Cell 20 , 163-176. A. Essay On Advantages Of Computer. Kumar, R. Values Essays. Shane Tubbs. . (2011) Spina bifida: A diagnostic dilemma in on advantages and disadvantages paleopathology. Clinical Anatomy 24 :10.1002/ca.v24.1, 19-33. Gang Wu, Xupei Huang, Yimin Hua, Dezhi Mu. . (2011) Roles of planar cell polarity pathways in research paper the development of neutral tube defects. Journal of Biomedical Science 18 , 66. Stephen L. Kinsman, Michael V. Johnston. . On Advantages Of Computer Games. 2011. Congenital Anomalies of the Central Nervous System.
Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 1998-2013. Rosario Gorgal, Carla Ramalho, Otilia Brandao, Alexandra Matias, Nuno Montenegro. . (2011) Revisiting Acrania: Same Phenotype, Different Aetiologies. Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy 29 , 166-170. Laura L. Yates, Jenny Papakrivopoulou, David A. Long, Paraskevi Goggolidou, John O. Connolly, Adrian S. Woolf, Charlotte H. Dean. . Values Essays. (2010) The planar cell polarity gene Vangl2 is required for mammalian kidney-branching morphogenesis and glomerular maturation. Essay Of Computer. Human Molecular Genetics 19 :23, 4663-4676. Sina A. Policy. Gharib, Ehab A. Dayyat, Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Jinkwan Kim, Heather B. Essay On Advantages Of Computer. Clair, Magdalena Kucia, David Gozal. Values Essays. . (2010) Intermittent Hypoxia Mobilizes Bone Marrow-Derived Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells and Activates Developmental Transcriptional Programs in Mice. Sleep 33 :11, 1439-1446. Louise Harewood, Monica Liu, Jean Keeling, Alan Howatson, Margo Whiteford, Peter Branney, Margaret Evans, Judy Fantes, David R. FitzPatrick, Pieter H. Reitsma. . (2010) Bilateral Renal Agenesis/Hypoplasia/Dysplasia (BRAHD): Postmortem Analysis of 45 Cases with Breakpoint Mapping of Two De Novo Translocations. PLoS ONE 5 :8, e12375.
Medha Tatke. . (2010) Nontumor lesions of spinal cord and spine. Seminars in essay and disadvantages Diagnostic Pathology 27 , 186-196. Sita Lakhwani, Patricia Garcia-Sanz, Mario Vallejo. . (2010) Alx3-deficient mice exhibit folic acid-resistant craniofacial midline and neural tube closure defects. Developmental Biology 344 , 869-880. Christina Pyrgaki, Paul Trainor, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis, Lee Niswander. . (2010) Dynamic imaging of mammalian neural tube closure. Values Essays. Developmental Biology 344 , 941-947. M. Elizabeth Ross. . (2010) Gene-environment interactions, folate metabolism and the embryonic nervous system.
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine 2 :10.1002/wsbm.v2:4, 471-480. Xiaoli Chen, Jin Guo, Yunping Lei, Jizhen Zou, Xiaolin Lu, Yihua Bao, Lihua Wu, Jianxin Wu, Xiaoying Zheng, Yiping Shen, Bai-Lin Wu, Ting Zhang. . And Disadvantages Of Computer Games. (2010) Global DNA hypomethylation is associated with NTD-affected pregnancy: A case-control study. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 88 , 575-581. Annie Reynolds, Jonathan R. McDearmid, Stephanie Lachance, Patrizia De Marco, Elisa Merello, Valeria Capra, Philippe Gros, Pierre Drapeau, Zoha Kibar. . Write Research Paper. (2010) VANGL1 rare variants associated with neural tube defects affect convergent extension in zebrafish. Mechanisms of essay on advantages games, Development 127 , 385-392. Lei , Yun-Ping , , Zhang , Ting , , Li , Hong , , Wu , Bai-Lin , , Jin , Li , , Wang , Hong-Yan , . Values Essays. . (2010) VANGL2 Mutations in and disadvantages of computer games Human Cranial Neural-Tube Defects. New England Journal of Medicine 362 :23, 2232-2235. G. Wayne Brodland, Xiaoguang Chen, Paul Lee, Mungo Marsden. . (2010) From genes to neural tube defects (NTDs): Insights from multiscale computational modeling. HFSP Journal 4 , 142-152. Shu Wen, Huiping Zhu, Wei Lu, Laura E. Research. Mitchell, Gary M. Shaw, Edward J. On Advantages And Disadvantages Games. Lammer, Richard H. Finnell. . (2010) Planar cell polarity pathway genes and cold call email, risk for spina bifida. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 152A :10.1002/ajmg.a.v152a:2, 299-304.
Maria Piccione, Vincenzo Antona, Roberta Antona, Giovanna Gambino, Mauro Pierluigi, Michela Malacarne, Simona Cavani, Giovanni Corsello. . (2010) Array-CGH defined chromosome 1p duplication in a patient with autism spectrum disorder, mild mental deficiency, and minor dysmorphic features. And Disadvantages. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 152A :10.1002/ajmg.a.v152a:2, 486-489. Andreas Jenny. Call. . Essay Of Computer Games. 2010. Planar Cell Polarity Signaling in the Drosophila Eye. Invertebrate and Vertebrate Eye Development, 189-227. Guido Fitze. . 2010. Kopf und Halsregion. Padiatrische Chirurgie, 5-39. N. D.E. Greene, P. Stanier, A. J. Copp. . (2009) Genetics of human neural tube defects.
Human Molecular Genetics 18 , R113-R129. Michael J. Harrington, Elim Hong, Rachel Brewster. . (2009) Comparative analysis of neurulation: First impressions do not count. Molecular Reproduction and Development 76 :10.1002/mrd.v76:10, 954-965. Jeffrey D. Axelrod. . (2009) Progress and paper, challenges in understanding planar cell polarity signaling. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages. Seminars in Cell Developmental Biology 20 , 964-971.
Alexander G. Values Essays. Bassuk, Zoha Kibar. On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Computer Games. . (2009) Genetic Basis of computer essay, Neural Tube Defects. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 16 , 101-110. Maria F. Chacon-Heszele, Ping Chen. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Games. . (2009) Mouse models for dissecting vertebrate planar cell polarity signaling in the inner ear. Brain Research 1277 , 130-140. Andrew S Yoo, Gerald R Crabtree. . (2009) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling in compare and contrast two teachers neural development. Current Opinion in on advantages Neurobiology 19 , 120-126. Jozsef Gabor Joo. . (2009) Recent perspectives on the genetic background of neural tube defects with special regard to iniencephaly. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics 9 , 281-293. Satoshi Suzuki, Mary L. Compare And Contrast. Marazita, Margaret E. Cooper, Nobutomo Miwa, Anne Hing, Astanand Jugessur, Nagato Natsume, Kazuo Shimozato, Naofumi Ohbayashi, Yasushi Suzuki, Teruyuki Niimi, Katsuhiro Minami, Masahiko Yamamoto, Tserendorj J. On Advantages And Disadvantages Games. Altannamar, Tudevdorj Erkhembaatar, Hiroo Furukawa, Sandra Daack-Hirsch, Jamie L'Heureux, Carla A. Brandon, Seth M. Essay. Weinberg, Katherine Neiswanger, Frederic W.B. Essay Of Computer Games. Deleyiannis, Javier E. de Salamanca, Alexandre R. Vieira, Andrew C. Lidral, James F. And Book Essay. Martin, Jeffrey C. Murray. . (2009) Mutations in and disadvantages BMP4 Are Associated with Subepithelial, Microform, and Overt Cleft Lip. The American Journal of Human Genetics 84 :3, 406-411.
Mindy C. Pitre, Nancy C. Lovell. . (2009) A sacral anomaly from the Quaker Cemetery, Kingston-upon-Thames, England. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology , n/a-n/a. Emily Marcinkevicius, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Jennifer A Zallen. . (2009) QA: Quantitative approaches to planar polarity and tissue organization. Journal of Biology 8 , 103. Matias Simons, Marek Mlodzik. . Movie And Book. (2008) Planar Cell Polarity Signaling: From Fly Development to essay on advantages and disadvantages games Human Disease. Annual Review of Genetics 42 :1, 517-540. Masaru Katoh. . (2008) Vangl2. AfCS-Nature Molecule Pages . Chih-Ping Chen. . (2008) Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Neural Tube Defects (VI). Values Essays. Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 47 , 267-275.
Tae Joo Park, Brian J Mitchell, Philip B Abitua, Chris Kintner, John B Wallingford. . (2008) Dishevelled controls apical docking and planar polarization of on advantages and disadvantages, basal bodies in ciliated epithelial cells. Toefl. Nature Genetics 40 , 871-879. E. Torban, A.-M. Patenaude, S. Leclerc, S. Rakowiecki, S. Gauthier, G. Andelfinger, D. Essay. J. Research. Epstein, P. Gros. . (2008) Genetic interaction between members of the Vangl family causes neural tube defects in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of essay on advantages and disadvantages games, Sciences 105 , 3449-3454. Chih-Ping Chen. . (2008) Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (II). Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 47 , 10-17.
Irene E. Zohn, Anjali A. Sarkar. . Compare And Contrast Essay Between. 2008. Chapter 1 Modeling Neural Tube Defects in the Mouse. Mouse Models of Developmental Genetic Disease, 1-35. Robyn J. Quinlan, Jonathan L. Essay Games. Tobin, Philip L. Beales. . 2008. Chapter 5 Modeling Ciliopathies. Mouse Models of movie and book essay, Developmental Genetic Disease, 249-310. Jian Liu, Jing Qi, Jie Zhu, Lixia Zhang, Yan Liang, Qin Ning, Xiaoping Luo. On Advantages Games. . (2008) Effects of Retinoic Acid on between two teachers the Expressions of essay of computer, Vangl1 and values essays, Vangl2 in Mouse Fetuses.
Journal of Neurogenetics 22 , 167-179.
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Top Five Phenomena That Offer Evidence For An Afterlife. In the and disadvantages of computer modern age, the debate over the possibility that our consciousness might survive the physical death of our body is often reduced to a false dichotomy of science vs religion. As such, scientists sadly often ignore and compare/contrast and book, ridicule reports of strange phenomena from those who have approached, and in some cases gone beyond, the essay on advantages and disadvantages threshold of death, even though such experiences have a profound effect upon those who undergo them. Do these phenomena offer evidence that we might live on research paper in some way past the demise of our physical selves? Here’s a list of five areas, taken from the book Stop Worrying! There Probably is an Afterlife (Kindle/Paperback), which suggest that it might just be so: 1. Veridical NDEs. The near-death experience first shot into the limelight in the 1970s after the publication of Raymond Moody’s best-selling book Life After Life , to the extent that nearly everyone today knows what an and disadvantages games, ‘NDE’ is. But while many people took the compare two teachers near-death experience itself as proof of on advantages of computer a life beyond death, orthodox science has judged (rightly or wrongly) the heavenly visions of the NDE to compare/contrast be simply hallucinations brought on by the essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer various physical and psychological burdens put on the brain by its imminent demise. One area that has the potential to policy research paper outline change that opinion, however, is research into what are termed ‘veridical NDEs’.
This is where, during the ‘out-of-body experience’ stage of the NDE, the and disadvantages games experiencer sees things – and later reports back on them – that they should not have been able to perceive. There are many anecdotes of veridical NDEs, such as the case of ‘Dentures Man’, which was mentioned in the respected journal The Lancet . In this case from 1979, a 44-year-old man (‘Mr. Between! B’) was brought into the emergency department at Canisius Hospital in and disadvantages games, the Netherlands by ambulance, after being discovered comatose, hypothermic and values essays, without a pulse in a cold, damp meadow in the middle of the night. Hospital staff, including the essay of computer games senior nurse (‘T.G.’), were beginning resuscitation on toefl the patient when T.G. noticed that Mr. B was wearing dentures, so removed them and placed them on the ‘crash cart’ so that he could put a ventilation mask on essay the unconscious man. After Mr. B was successfully ‘brought back’, he was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit, and so T.G. Compare/contrast Essay! did not see the man again until a week later while doing rounds distributing medication. T.G. was astonished when, as he walked into the room, the on advantages and disadvantages of computer games patient he had brought back to life suddenly exclaimed ‘‘Oh, that nurse knows where my dentures are!’’.
Seeing the look of research paper surprise on T.G.’s face, Mr. B explained himself: since coming back to consciousness, Mr. On Advantages Games! B. Research Paper Outline! had been looking for on advantages, his dentures. ‘‘You were there when I was brought into compare and contrast essay two teachers hospital and you took my dentures out of my mouth and put them onto that cart,” he said. “It had all these bottles on of computer it and there was this sliding drawer underneath and write findings paper, there you put my teeth”. T.G. was confused by this, as he remembered that he had done this when the games patient was unconscious and undergoing CPR to bring him back to life: When I asked further, it appeared the man had seen himself lying in bed, that he had perceived from findings research paper above how nurses and doctors had been busy with CPR. He was also able to and disadvantages of computer games describe correctly and in detail the small room in which he had been resuscitated as well as the appearance of those present like myself. Cold Letter! At the essay on advantages time that he observed the situation he had been very much afraid that we would stop CPR and that he would die. And it is true that we had been very negative about the patient’s prognosis due to his very poor medical condition when admitted.
The patient tells me that he desperately and unsuccessfully tried to make it clear to us that he was still alive and that we should continue CPR. He is deeply impressed by findings research paper, his experience and essay on advantages of computer, says he is no longer afraid of death. Four weeks later he left hospital as a healthy man. How did Mr. B ‘see’ the resuscitation room, and in particular the head nurse’s face, when his brain was apparently shut down? While this account alone is movie and book puzzling, it is just one of a long list of ‘veridical NDE’ reports through the years. And Disadvantages! Another patient, Al Sullivan, was undergoing emergency heart surgery when he had a classic NDE with the well-known elements of the tunnel, ‘the light’, and a meeting with his dead mother. Values Essays! But during the out-of-body experience stage he also apparently ‘saw’ the operating room while under a general anaesthetic: “I was laying [sic] on a table covered with light blue sheets and I was cut open so as to expose my chest cavity… I was able to see my surgeon, who just moments ago had explained to me what he was going to do during my operation. He appeared to be somewhat perplexed.
I thought he was flapping his arms as if trying to essay on advantages of computer games fly. ” It tuns out this ‘flapping’ motion was an and book essay, idiosyncratic habit of the surgeon, who after scrubbing in would point at things using his elbows to avoid contamination of his hands. The list of similar cases goes on; researcher Janice Miner Holden collected some 107 cases from the NDE literature, and concluded that “the sheer volume of anecdotes that a number of authors over the course of the last 150 years have described suggests [veridical NDE perception] is real.…the cumulative weight of these narratives [should be enough to] convince most skeptics that these reports are something more than than mere hallucinations on the patient’s part”. In fact, the evidence from veridical NDEs has been so strong that a large study has now been undertaken, involving various hospitals around the on advantages and disadvantages of computer games world, that is essay attempting to answer the question of whether near-death experiencers can truly ‘see’ while having an on advantages of computer, out-of-body experience. In the AWARE study, patients who survive a cardiac arrest are being asked if they underwent an out-of-body experience during their brush with death, and compare essay, if so, whether they were able to see certain ‘hidden targets’ placed in the room that can only be seen from a vantage point near the ceiling. The AWARE researchers will soon release their first official scientific report , and have just secured new funding that will ensure this area continues to be investigated.
2. Peak-in-Darien Experiences. In an 1882 book that described a number of strange phenomena reported by the dying titled The Peak in Darien , author Frances Cobbe wrote of an incident “of a very striking character” that occurred in essay games, a family with very tight bonds. A dying lady suddenly began showing emotions of recognition and joy, before telling how, one after another, three of paper her brothers who had long been dead had appeared in essay of computer games, the room. Values Essays! Then, strangely, a fourth brother appeared to her as dead, despite the fact that he was believed by those present to still be alive and well at his residence in essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer, India – the suggestion that he had passed away was enough to cold email cause one person to run from the room in essay on advantages of computer, shock. Cold Call Cover Letter Email! Being the late 19th century, there was no instant way of checking on the brother’s health, but sometime later letters were received announcing his death in India at a time before his dying sister appeared to recognize a vision of him at her bedside. The title of Cobbe’s book has since become the essay of computer games unofficial name for accounts of this type, those where the dying have visions of deceased individuals who were thought to be alive at the time of the vision: Peak-in-Darien experiences. And like veridical NDEs, there are a surprisingly large number of them recorded in the literature. Movie Essay! They have even seeped into popular culture: in on advantages games, recent times, the values essays popular TV show Grey’s Anatomy brought such an experience into the public consciousness when the main character, Meredith Grey, had an NDE in essay games, which she had a vision of her mother, whom she thought was alive but had actually just passed away elsewhere in the hospital. Letter! The scene has a number of parallels with real life events.
For instance, in 1968 a female near-death experiencer reported having the classic OBE view of her hospital room from outside her physical body, before finding herself in ‘heaven’ with an angel and a familiar-looking young man. “Why, Tom, I didn’t know you were up here,” she said to essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer the close family friend, with Tom replying to her that he had just arrived himself. Not long after returning to her body, and life, her husband received a phone call with the unfortunate news that their friend Tom had died in values essays, a car accident. In another case, a 9-year-old boy in Pittsburgh suffering from essay of computer games meningitis woke up the toefl next morning and said he’d been in on advantages and disadvantages, heaven and and contrast between, saw his grandparents and uncle, as well as his older sister, saying “she told me I have to come back, but she’s going to stay there with grandma and granddad”. Of Computer! The boy’s father became upset with him, rebuking the lad before assuring him that his sister was alive and healthy at college in Vermont, as he had spoken with her the and book previous day. Essay On Advantages Games! Concerned at the father’s state, the doctor told him to go home and get some rest, at which time he found that the college had been trying to call him all night long with the tragic news that his daughter had been killed in a car accident the night before. Though it’s likely Peak-in-Darien experiences will never convince the most hardcore of skeptics, the sheer number of computer puzzling accounts of this type should certainly have any open-minded person curious as to whether they are evidence of some sort of and disadvantages games life beyond death.
While the between idea that certain people can ‘talk’ to the dead is a popular one in essay on advantages and disadvantages games, modern culture – witness the compare two teachers success of recent television shows such as Medium and Ghost Whisperer , not to mention hit movies like Ghost – such individuals are not as popular with scientists and skeptics, who tend to view them with contempt. The reason for this is no doubt the long association between mediumship and unscrupulous charlatans taking advantage of the bereaved, of which there have been more than a few. But mediumship proper goes back into prehistory, when shamans went into trance and acted as the conduit between the dead and on advantages and disadvantages of computer, the living. And right up into modern times, there have been certain individuals who seem to have had this ability. In the late 19th century, the between two teachers Society for essay of computer games, Psychical Research (S.P.R.) – a group comprised of some of the most respected academics in the world – set out to investigate claims of computer toefl essay mediumship to on advantages and disadvantages games try and ascertain the truth of the matter. And while they certainly found their share of frauds, they also uncovered rare gems. They assigned one of their toughest skeptical minds, an write research paper, Australian by the name of Richard Hodgson, to the peculiar case of an ostensibly normal Boston housewife, Mrs. Leonora Piper, who would go into essay of computer games trance and allow ‘the dead’ to channel communication through her (at one point, three conversations could be held simultaneously between living and deceased individuals, one through the voice, one through writing with the right hand, and another with the left!). Hodgson investigated Piper for almost twenty years, using detectives to shadow her and toefl, her husband, arranging sittings anonymously and taking numerous other precautions.
He collected thousands of pages of testimony and analysis, and reams of evidence suggesting that Mrs. On Advantages Of Computer! Piper had access to information beyond her normal senses. Hodgson’s official conclusion was paradigm-shattering. He was, he said, convinced “that the values essays chief ‘communicators’. have survived the change we call death, and. have directly communicated with us. through Mrs Piper’s entranced organism”. Hodgson was not alone in his summation. Another researcher who devoted a number of years to studying Mrs. On Advantages Of Computer! Piper, Professor James Hyslop, concluded that her mediumship provided solid evidence “that there is a future life and persistence of personal identity”. Frederic Myers, one of the compare/contrast founding members of the S.P.R., said of his own sittings that they “left little doubt – no doubt – that we were in the presence of an authentic utterance from a soul beyond the tomb”.
And yet, in the last century, these findings have been forgotten, so that in essay and disadvantages of computer, recent times scientists tend to react only compare and contrast two teachers, with disdain when the subject of mediumship is raised. However, in recent years other researchers have taken on the yoke of investigating mediumship within a scientific framework. Dr. Emily Kelly of the games University of Virginia and former hospice chaplain Dianne Arcangel undertook a study of the information given by letter email, mediums to recently-bereaved persons, the essay on advantages of computer results of which were published in early 2011 in the Journal of findings Nervous and Mental Disorders . Some of Kelly and Arcangel’s findings do appear to offer tantalizing evidence for the validity of mediumship. In one experiment, Kelly and essay games, Arcangel employed nine mediums to offer readings for 40 individual sitters – two of the between two teachers mediums doing six each, while the other seven mediums did four readings each (each sitter had just one reading done). The sittings were done without the actual sitter present (the researchers acted as a ‘proxy’ to essay and disadvantages keep a blind protocol), and audio recordings of the mediums’ statements were later transcribed. Each sitter was then sent six readings – the correct reading, and five ‘decoy’ readings drawn from those given for others in the group – but were then asked to rate each overall reading on how applicable they thought it was to them, and comment on compare and contrast two teachers why they chose the highest rated reading.
Thirty-eight of the forty participants returned their ratings – and, amazingly, 14 of the 38 readings were correctly chosen (while at first sight ‘less than half correct’ may seem a rather poor success rate, given there were six readings to choose from, this is actually a number significantly above what would be expected by chance). Additionally, seven other readings were ranked second, and essay of computer, altogether 30 of the findings research paper 38 readings were ranked in the top half of the ratings. What’s more, one medium in particular stood out above the others: all six of this person’s readings were correctly ranked first by each sitter, at quite astronomical odds! Sitters, asked to and disadvantages of computer games explain why they chose the correct readings, often cited the specific, personal details that stood out. Computer Essay! For example: . the medium referred to on advantages and disadvantages of computer games “a lady that is very much, was influential in his [the deceased person’s] formative years. So, whether that is mother or whether that is grandmother. She can strangle a chicken.” The sitter commented that her grandmother (the deceased person’s mother) “killed chickens. It freaked me out the first time I saw her do this.
I cried so hard that my parents had to take me home. So the chicken strangling is write research a big deal. Essay Games! In fact I often referred to compare and contrast between two teachers my sweet grandmother as the on advantages games chicken killer”. Other researchers have also returned positive results from research with mediums. Dr. Julie Beischel has spent more than a decade investigating mediumship, and she has become convinced by the evidence. “When I applied the paper outline scientific method to the phenomenon of mediumship using optimal environments, maximum controls, and skilled participants”, she states, “I was able to definitively conclude that certain mediums are able to essay and disadvantages of computer report accurate and specific information about discarnates (the deceased) without using any normal means to acquire that information”. 4. Death Bed Phenomena. Strange experiences reported at the time of death, including near-death experiences and death-bed visions, are often dismissed by skeptics as artifacts of the dying patient’s misfiring brain. But such explanations are confounded by the fact that, in some cases, other quite healthy people present in research paper, the room with the dying also experience the ‘veil’ to the afterlife being lifted. For example, there have been numerous cases in which carers for the dying have described seeing a bright light surrounding the dying person, exuding what they relate as “a raw feeling of games love”. What sort of numbers are we talking?
Researcher Peter Fenwick was amazed to find in a survey that one in every three palliative carers reported accounts of essay “a radiant light that envelops the dying person, and may spread throughout the room and essay on advantages of computer, involve the call cover carer”. In a similar Dutch study, more than half of the carers surveyed reported witnessing this ‘light’! Meanwhile in a questionnaire put to palliative care nurses in Australia, one respondent told how he, another nurse, and on advantages of computer, the patient’s husband saw a blue-white light leave the body of the research paper patient and drift toward the ceiling. “As she died we just noticed like an energy rising from on advantages games her. sort of a bluey white sort of aura,” the toefl essay nurse explained. Games! “We looked at each other, and the husband was on write paper the other side of the bed and and disadvantages games, he was looking at us. he saw it as well and he said he thinks that she went to a better place”. Toefl! As is often the case, this experience was transformative for the nurse: “It probably changed the way I felt about people dying and what actually happens after death”. In fact the researcher responsible for the Australian survey, Deborah Morris, was herself originally inspired to investigate death-bed experiences further by her own experience of seeing ‘the dying light’. “There was a young man who had died in the room with his family and I saw an essay games, aura coming off him,” she recounts. “It was like a mist. I didn’t tell anybody for years.
I’ve never seen it again”. Peter Fenwick relates an instance in which a person, at the time of their brother’s death, witnessed “odd tiny sparks of bright light” emanating from the essay body – and what’s more, these ‘sparks’ were also seen by and disadvantages, another person in the room. In another case, a carer awoke in the darkness of compare and contrast early morning to the sight of essay and disadvantages games “a flame licking the top of the wall against the ceiling” above her dying father’s bed. “I saw a plume of smoke rising, like the and book vapour that rises from a snuffed-out candle, but on a bigger scale. it was being thrown off by a single blade of phosphorus light”, the witness recounted. “It hung above Dad’s bed, about 18 inches or so long, and was indescribably beautiful. Essay On Advantages Of Computer! it seemed to letter email express perfect love and peace”. She switched on the light to investigate further, but the light instantly vanished; “the room was the same as always on a November morning, cold and cheerless, with no sound of breathing from and disadvantages of computer Dad’s bed. His body was still warm”. This sighting of a vapour-like substance leaving the body at the time of values essays death is another element that is often reported: As he died something which is essay of computer games very hard to describe because it was so unexpected and because I had seen nothing like it left up through his body and call cover, out of on advantages and disadvantages of computer his head.
It resembled distinct delicate waves/lines of smoke (smoke is not the right word but I have not got a comparison) and then disappeared. I was the only one to movie and book essay see it. It left me with such a sense of peace and comfort. I don’t think that we were particularly close as my sister and I had been sent off to essay games boarding school at an early age. I do not believe in God. But as to an afterlife I now really do not know what to between two teachers think. Family, carers and physicians have also reported various other phenomena occurring at the time of death, from the sounds of angelic choirs singing through to visions of the essay and disadvantages games already deceased at the dying person’s bedside. For example, one woman reported that as she watched her mother pass away. …Suddenly I was aware that her father was stood at computer toefl essay, the foot of her bed. My mother was staring at him too and her face was lit up with joy. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Computer Games! It was then that I saw her face appeared to be glowing with a gold light.
The light began to policy research paper leave through the top of her head and essay and disadvantages, go towards the cold call cover letter ceiling. Looking back to my mother’s face I saw that she was no longer breathing. Similarly, Peter Fenwick was told by one lady that while sitting at her dying husband’s bedside there was suddenly “a most brilliant light shining from my husband’s chest”. The light began to essay on advantages and disadvantages rise toward the call letter ceiling, and she began hearing “the most beautiful music and singing voices”, filling her with an overwhelming feeling of joy. Essay And Disadvantages! At this point, the nurse interrupted with news that her husband had just passed, and the light and the music instantly disappeared, leaving the woman bereft at being left behind, after being shown just the barest of glimpses ‘behind the veil’. Certainly, those witnessing the death of another person are sure to be under psychological stress, so perhaps in some cases we could explain cases away as some sort of hallucination. However, in cases where multiple witnesses in movie and book, the same room describe the on advantages and disadvantages same vision, we really do being to feel as if we’re reaching for mundane explanations. 5. Crossovers between Mediumship and Near-Death Experiences. After days of struggle against the disease that had struck him down, Dr.
Horace Ackley could take no more. Compare! All of a sudden, he felt himself gradually rising from his body; as his organs ceased functioning, Dr. Ackley suddenly found himself in a position slightly above his lifeless physical body, looking down on it and those who had been in essay on advantages of computer, the room with him. Then, without warning. …the scenes of my whole life seemed to move before me like a panorama; every act seemed as though it were drawn in life size and was really present: it was all there, down to the closing scenes. So rapidly did it pass, that I had little time for reflection. I seemed to be in a whirlpool of excitement; and and book, then, just as suddenly as this panorama had been presented, it was withdrawn, and I was left without a thought of the past or future to contemplate my present condition. Dr. Ackley realized that he must have died, and was gratified to learn that it seemed a rather pleasant experience. “Death is on advantages not so bad a thing after all,” he said to himself, “and I should like to see what that country is that I am going to, if I am a spirit.” His only regret, looking down on values essays the whirl of activity in the room, was that he was unable to inform his friends that he lived on, to set their minds and hearts at ease. Essay And Disadvantages Games! At this point, two ‘guardian spirits’ appeared before Dr.
Ackley, greeting him by name before leading him from the room into an area where a number of ‘spirits’ whom he was familiar with had assembled. Those familiar with accounts of near-death experiences might well be saying to themselves “ho-hum, another stock-standard near-death experience”. They might guess that Dr. Ackley then woke up in his resuscitated body and told an compare/contrast movie and book, NDE researcher about his experience. But if they did, they would be wrong. Dr. Horace Ackley truly did die that day, never to return to this life. The report that you read above was an account of his death, allegedly given by him through a spirit medium – one Samuel Paist of Philadelphia. And what makes it truly remarkable is on advantages and disadvantages games that it was written down by findings, Paist in games, his book A Narrative of the Experience of Horace Abraham Ackley, M.D. , and published in two teachers, 1861 – more than a century before the near-death experience had come to the attention of researchers and the general public. And yet Paist/Ackley tells of an OBE shortly after death, a “panoramic” life review (the exact word “panoramic” is found in many NDE reports), and being greeted by essay and disadvantages games, spirits who subsequently guided him to an afterlife realm!
But the after-death narrative of Dr. Horace Ackley is not an write findings research, isolated instance. Essay! More than a decade before the publication of Raymond Moody’s Life After Life – the book that started the modern fascination with near-death experiences – another scientist had already investigated and cold call cover letter email, written at length on the topic. In a pair of relatively obscure books – The Supreme Adventure (1961) and Intimations of on advantages of computer Immortality (1965) – Dr. Computer Essay! Robert Crookall cited numerous examples of what he called “pseudo-death,” noting the archetypal elements that Moody would later bring to the public’s attention as the near-death experience. What’s more however, Crookall also compared these tales of ‘pseudo-death’ with accounts of the dying process as told by ‘communicators’ through mediums – and found a number of these same recurring elements, well before they became public knowledge through Moody’s Life After Life . For example, Crookall showed that, according to ostensibly dead ‘communicators’ talking through mediums, the essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer newly- deceased are usually met by call email, other deceased loved ones: “Usually friends or relatives take the newly-dead man in charge”. This of course may not be considered a surprising thing for a medium to say – it’s probably what most people would expectantly hope for upon entering the spirit realm. But the common elements continue, and include some of the more idiosyncratic features of the NDE. For instance, Crookall noted that, as with the case of Dr. Ackley above, communicators often declare through mediums that “in the early stages of transition, they experienced a panoramic review of their past lives”. In one case the communicator recounted that shortly after death “the scenes of the past life” are revealed; another said that upon ‘waking’ his “entire life unreeled itself”.
A dead communicator by the name of Scott told medium Jane Sherwood that his thoughts “raced over the record of a whole long lifetime”, while another communicator said that he saw “clearer and clearer the events of my past life pass, in a long procession, before me.” Beyond the meeting with the familiar dead, and the past life review, Crookall’s research also found that mediumistic communicators regularly make note of the out-of-body experience component. For example, one communicator noted that he “seemed to rise up out of essay on advantages games my body”. Research Paper Outline! According to another, “I was not lying in on advantages, the bed, but floating in the air, a little above it. Findings Research Paper! I saw the body, stretched out straight”. Furthermore, they also describe the familiar element of traveling through a tunnel! “I saw in front of me a dark tunnel,” said one communicator, before travelling through it and then stepping “out of the tunnel into a new world”.
Another communicator noted that they remembered “a curious opening, as if one had passed through subterranean passages and found oneself near the mouth of essay and disadvantages of computer a cave. The light was much stronger outside”. Cold Cover! And once through the essay of computer games ‘tunnel’, the environment is once again familiar to values essays anyone who has perused a catalogue of NDEs: “I was with ‘B’ [her son, killed in the War]: he took me to a world so brilliant that I can’t describe it”. The common elements are compelling. For anyone familiar with the essay of computer NDE literature, these reports through mediums are startlingly similar to the accounts of near-death experiencers – and yet Crookall collected them years before the archetype of the NDE became common knowledge. And what’s more, not only compare/contrast and book, do they seem to essay on advantages games offer support for essay, the validity of the near-death experience, they also hint that there may well be more to essay on advantages the much-maligned subject of paper outline mediumship. For more detailed discussion of all these fascinating topics, grab your copy of Stop Worrying!
There Probably is an essay, Afterlife as either a Kindle ebook or in paperback. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. As we have discussed before you have cherry picked your information on Leonora Piper and have ignored all the skeptical literature on the subject, you keep doing this, and you show no sign of stopping, it's not honest research. Do you really believe she was in contact with spirits despite all the evidence to the contrary? It exposes you as credulous and willing to cold call letter believe no matter the essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer games evidence and it amazes me how you can still go on call cover email believing when there is stacks of evidence against the spirit hypothesis with Piper: There's not a shred of evidence she was in essay on advantages and disadvantages, contact with spirits. Her controls talked nonsense about monkeys living in the sun and about non-existence planets, you believe that do you? Her controls made false predictions about movie and book essay wars that never happened and essay of computer, about people's lives, for example one of her supposed spirit controls told Richard Hodgson he would get married, have two children and have a long life but Hodgson died a few months later, unmarried and childless. She made many other errors.
During a series of seances the Hodgson control of cold call Piper was asked the name of his schoolmaster in Melbourne but failed to and disadvantages games give the correct answer, Hodgson's sister who was sent the messages was not convinced they were from values essays Hodgson. Both Frederic Myers and Richard Hodgson wrote secret messages in envelopes and claimed that when they would die if they were to come back through Piper they would reveal the contents of the essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer games letter, it's not a surprise that Piper's Hodgson and Myers control failed to reveal the messages in the letter. With the amount of errors Piper's controls made, the explanation via Occam's razor is that the controls were just Piper herself and fictitious creations. Write Findings Research! Anyone rational will see this. It is a serious stretch and violation of the and disadvantages of computer data to conclude spirits were involved. As for the Pellew control of Piper, his family were shown the communications and they were not impressed:
A cousin of Pellew's wrote to Mr. Clodd to tell him that, if he cared to ask the family, he would learn that all the relatives of the values essays dead man regarded Mrs. Piper's impersonation of him as beneath contempt. Mr Clodd wrote to Professor Pellew, George's brother, and found that this was the case. The family has been pestered for on advantages of computer games, fifteen years with reports of the proceedings and paper outline, requests to essay on advantages of computer authenticate them and join the and book essay S.P.R. They said that they knew George, and on advantages, they could not believe that, when freed from the burden of the flesh, he would talk such utter drivel and inanity. As to intimate friends, one of these was Professor Fiske, who had been described by Dr. Hodgson as absolutely convinced of the identity of G. P. Cold Call Cover Letter! When Professor Pellew told Professor Fiske of this, he replied, roundly, that it was a lie. On Advantages Games! Mrs. Piper had, he said, been silent or entirely wrong on policy paper all his test questions.
As you can see from the above quote, Richard Hodgson was also involved in fraud. He had deliberately lied about certain data from Professor Fiske's seance. None of this is mentioned by you. It's important that the family members of Piper's alleged controls were not impressed, it is not something that should be ignored, surely family members know the essay and disadvantages most about a person, right? If you want the and book reference for the above quote it's Joseph McCabe. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Computer! (1920). Findings! Is Spiritualism Based On Fraud? The Evidence Given By Sir A. C. Doyle and Others Drastically Examined.
London Watts Co. p. And Disadvantages! 103. And what about the Dean Connor case? Piper's control had claimed Connor was alive and values essays, gave very specific details about where he was but he was dead and all Piper's information was wrong. Essay Games! The errors are just too many. Even Piper herself confessed I must truthfully say that I do not believe that spirits of the dead have spoken through me when I have been in the trance state so it's kind of strange that you are writing books claiming she did communicate with spirits. Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks.
Greg, if you want to essay two teachers further debate this feel free to email me, it's probably not the on advantages of computer best place on here. Before I get attacked by believers on call letter email here let me clarify my position. I am only skeptical of mediumship and spiritualism, I have no dispute with research into ESP, telepathy and apparitions etc and have no problem with your other content in essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer games, your book which is well-researched, for me you only research outline, ruin it by on advantages, being credulous on the mediumship and ignoring certain works. I believe in the afterlife but I don't believe it can be scientifically demonstrated, it doesn't work that way as Harry Price found out. I have views very similar to write one of essay and disadvantages of computer games my heroes Harry Price and I highly suggest the book The Newer Spiritualism (1910) by policy, the skeptical SPR member Frank Podmore. It has a chapter on essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer Piper and rejects the spirit hypothesis. Mediums can't and don't communicate with spirits, the evidence shows this. I also recommend Ronald Pearsall's book The Table Rappers for the tricks of fraudulent mediums and Harry Price's Fifty years of Psychical research is the computer essay best book on the subject.
Regards. Have a good Christmas. Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends. 3 years 39 weeks. As we have discussed before you have cherry picked your information on Leonora Piper and have ignored all the skeptical literature on the subject, you keep doing this, and you show no sign of stopping, it's not honest research. Do you really believe she was in contact with spirits despite all the evidence to the contrary? It exposes you as credulous and willing to believe no matter the evidence and it amazes me how you can still go on believing when there is stacks of evidence against and disadvantages games the spirit hypothesis with Piper: There's not a shred of letter evidence she was in of computer, contact with spirits. Her controls talked nonsense about monkeys living in cover letter, the sun and about non-existence planets, you believe that do you?
Her controls made false predictions about wars that never happened and essay and disadvantages of computer games, about people's lives, for example one of her supposed spirit controls told Richard Hodgson he would get married, have two children and have a long life but Hodgson died a few months later, unmarried and childless. The fact that Piper committed some errors does not invalidate the extraordinary successes she had. For example, when Pellew through Piper recognized all persons Pellew met in life except one, because he met when she was little. In addition there are many other cases of mediumship probably authentic, as Eileen Garrett and Gladys Osborne Leonard. As we have discussed before you have cherry picked your information on Leonora Piper. . Write! followed by games, a dozen posts in which you cherry-pick information and cite people to support your conclusion of fraud who did *not* believe fraud was involved.
What's more interesting to me is policy paper that you post under the username 'HonestSkeptic', despite already having a username here that works perfectly fine. Though perhaps we should inform readers this is essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer a habit of yours, you post under multiple different usernames on movie essay almost every forum I've spotted you on. At least this time (so far) you haven't created another username in essay and disadvantages of computer games, which you pretend to call be your opposition, trying to ingratiate yourself with them, which you've also done multiple times? Will you be linking (spamming) to and disadvantages of computer games RationalWiki soon? You know those hit pieces on the likes of Michael Prescott that you wrote, then denied you wrote to readers here (under your old username here)? I did like the touch though of linking to Wikipedia articles to support your cause, when you're the one who has been writing/spamming those entries over the course of this year, flooding them with. cherry-picked information that supports just your own conclusion. Honest skeptic? More like a dishonest troll methinks. And I don't feed trolls.
My suggestion to you? Create a website and compare essay two teachers, post your rants there, rather than flooding Wikipedia, TDG and various other websites with your proselytising. You monkeys only think you're running things. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. I am not denying Piper had some successes, but like all fraudulent mediums who utilise mentalist techniques she was a clever cold reader, she picked things up about her seance sitters. All mental mediums will get the occasional hits. Many of them are clever at what they do. As Ivor Lloyd Tuckett wrote it could be explained by and disadvantages, muscle-reading, fishing, guessing, hints obtained in the sitting, knowledge surreptitiously obtained, knowledge acquired in the interval between sittings and lastly, facts already within Mrs. Piper's knowledge.
In short all information by values essays, Piper could have come through naturalistic means. I am not opposed to essay and disadvantages ESP but there's no need to invoke it in cold letter email, mediumship cases. As for Pellew she held one sitting with him and spent an entire day with him before his death, she knew all kinds of details about him and his life. But she also made many errors about and disadvantages games Pellew. Computer Toefl Essay! She failed at impersonating him. As quoted in on advantages of computer, my original post, Pellew's brother and and contrast essay two teachers, cousin were shown the communications and they were offended by essay games, them and denied they were from the real Pellew. The Pellew control of Piper was the opposite personality of the real Pellew. Greg doesn't mention the family members of Pellew in his book. As explained it's important not to ignore this evidence.
I don't see why Greg includes the Piper case on a book about the afterlife, her mediumship has entirely naturalistic explanations and even most parapsychologists have admitted this or invoked ESP, not spirits. As for Eileen J. Write! Garrett and Gladys Osborne Leonard, similar to on advantages of computer all mediums of that period they were both exposed as frauds: The quote from Terence Hines, basically sums it up: If John Edward (or any of the other self-proclaimed speakers with the dead) really could communicate with the compare/contrast movie and book dead, it would be a trivial matter to of computer prove it. All that would be necessary would be for findings, him to essay and disadvantages contact any of the thousands of missing persons who are presumed dead—famous (e.g., Jimmy Hoffa, Judge Crater) or otherwise—and correctly report where the body is. Of course, this is never done. All we get, instead, are platitudes to the effect that Aunt Millie, who liked green plates, is happy on the other side. I know people want to believe in mediums but if you do honest research you will discover it is just fraud. It is not evidence for an afterlife. Also this is something Greg has overlooked but the write findings reports of the NDE's contradict what the on advantages and disadvantages of computer spiritualists have said about a spirit world. Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends.
9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. There's also something else that Greg and cold call cover, other proponents of spirit hypothesis have not explained, there is essay on advantages and disadvantages games a contradiction/error from the spirit hypothesis. Walter Mann comments on computer toefl it: The Spiritualists, in of computer games, their clever theories, have overlooked one thing : What becomes of the spirit of Mrs. Piper?
Does it remain close at hand, ready to return to computer toefl Mrs. Piper's body directly the essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer control vacates it ? If so, how is compare it that Mrs. Piper knows nothing of what transpires ? If, on the other hand, it goes wandering about, how is it she knows nothing about that? Spirits do not go into trances or become unconscious. We are assured that pure spirit, freed from the earthly shell or body, is pure intellect. Essay And Disadvantages Of Computer Games! No one ever heard of a sleeping spirit or an unconscious spirit. How is it that Mrs, Piper gives no account of what happened to her own spirit during the sitting? The most reasonable explanation is that spirits have nothing to do with the compare/contrast matter at all, and that the real author of the message is Mrs. Piper, and essay of computer, no one else. Reference: Walter Mann. Computer Essay! (1919). The Follies and Frauds of Spiritualism.
Rationalist Association. London: Watts Co. The book is free online if you search for it, but like most skeptical references is no where to be found in Greg's book. Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. Here's some interesting quotes from Society for Psychical Research members who rejected the view that Piper was in contact with spirits. Mrs.
Henry Sidgwick: Mrs. Henry Sidgwick, who has made a careful analysis of Mrs. And Disadvantages Games! Piper's trance phenomena, running to a volume of 650 pages, comes to the conclusion that, however true it may be that there is really communication between the living and the dead, the intelligence communicating directly through Mrs. Computer Essay! Piper's organism is Mrs. Piper. I cannot point to essay and disadvantages of computer games a single instance in which a precise and unambiguous piece of information has been furnished of a kind which could not have proceeded from the medium's own mind, working upon the materials provided and the hints let drop by the sitter. It is impossible to and contrast believe that in these trance utterances [of Mrs. Essay And Disadvantages Of Computer! Piper] we are listening to cold cover letter email authentic and unembarrassed messages from the dead. William James also described the spirit-contol hypothesis of Piper's mediumship as incoherent, irrelevant and in cases demonstrably false. Yet Greg ignores Sidgwick, Podmore or James conclusion and goes with Hodgson's (even though Hodgson was caught fabricating data).
Cherry picking just the essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer minority of spiritualist supporters for Piper isn't good, surely all of the psychical researchers and policy paper outline, skeptics should be reported and and disadvantages of computer, taken into consideration as well? But Greg doesn't do this. I understand his book is write findings research meant to essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer games be pro-afterlife and compare/contrast movie and book essay, not neutral, but it would have been much more better if all the data was included pro and con so then the reader could make up their own conclusion. Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. If anyone is looking for a neutral book, I recommend: The Case For And Against Psychical Belief (1927) which contains essays by both believers and on advantages and disadvantages of computer games, skeptics.
The book features essays from spiritualist believers such as Oliver Lodge, to semi-sceptical psychical researchers like Walter Franklin Prince and to militant skeptics such as Joseph Jastrow and the open-minded skeptic magician Harry Houdini. This is one of the only collaborations in cold call email, existence between believers and skeptics, you see we don't always have to be at of computer games, war :) Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks.
This is not well known but the militant skeptic Joseph Jastrow was actually a founding member of the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR), as was G. Stanley Hall. They both resigned though by 1890. Who would have believed it, the American SPR was originally a skeptic organization =) SHHH that didn't come from me. Both Joseph Jastrow and values essays, G. Stanley Hall were highly critical of Leonora Piper. Jastrow believed Piper was a conscious fraud and that she had faked her trances (this view was taken up by later skeptics). Hall conducted his own psychological experiments on Piper and wrote an of computer games, introduction to Amy Tanner's book Studies in Spiritism which debunks the spirit hypothesis of Piper's mediumship. The book is online here: Admittedly not the best book on the subject, but one that should not be ignored. Jon Donnis and findings, Harry Price both legends. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks.
Just found this reference from a website someone quoted: Leonore Piper lived in the United States around the turn of the essay and disadvantages of computer century. Through her, a number of spirits related stories of persons and events concerning which Leonora Piper denied any knowledge. However, a number of compare between two teachers incidents cast doubt on her ability to contact the dead. For example, she gained some degree of fame with a spirit revelation about the circumstances of the death of essay and disadvantages of computer a man called Dean Connor. However, when the revelation was finally checked out, it turned out to be grossly unreliable. Compare/contrast And Book Essay! In another incident, the of computer games family of George Pellew-whose departed spirit supposedly conveyed much of the news of the other world to Leonore- was shown the information furnished by Pellew about email himself; they judged it to be highly inaccurate. On another occasion, Leonore claimed to have contacted the spirit of Bessie Beals, who was a fictitious person invented on the spur of the on advantages moment by computer toefl, the psychologist G. Stanley Hall. Later in her life, Leonore Piper made the following statement: I cannot see but that it must have been an on advantages and disadvantages games, unconscious expression of my subliminal self. it seems to me that there is write findings no evidence of sufficient scientific value to warrant acceptance of the spiritualist hypothesis. I am not sure why he calls Leonora Leonore but either way the evidence is overwhelming, Piper was not in contact with the dead. Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends.
9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. This information isn't widely known and doesn't appear anywhere on essay on advantages and disadvantages the internet, but it appears in paper, the book William James. Essays in Psychical Research published in on advantages games, 1986 by and contrast essay, the Harvard University Press in the footnotes at the back of the essay and disadvantages of computer book: William James found information that Piper may have started her mediumship career as a slate-writer. This is cover email controversial considering slate-writing was discredited as fraudulent in the 1880s (William Eglinton, Henry Slade etc were exposed). Richard Hodgson exposed the slate writing methods of on advantages and disadvantages mediums with the conjuror S. T. Davey.
Is it possible that Piper converted to a mental medium because she was previously exposed as a fraud under a different name? Or did she convert to mental mediumship due to Richard Hodgson investigating her (Hodgson had a strong dislike to slate-writing). And Contrast Between! I find this suspicious. I was at one point very close to speculating that Hodgson may of been romantically involved with Piper but there is no direct evidence for this, but there's a lot of odd stuff surrounding Piper and Hodgson, for on advantages of computer games, example he used to stand outside her house for values essays, hours observing her, almost like a stalker. Weird stuff indeed. We already know that Piper liked to essay on advantages and disadvantages games tell her seance sitters what they wanted to hear, for example one of compare/contrast movie Piper's controls (I think now we can just call them Piper because they were herself) told Hodgson that Madame Blavatsky's soul was in and disadvantages of computer games, hell (Hodgson hated Blavatsky and had previously exposed her). It makes sense that Piper was clever and would do things to get in the good books of psychical researchers.
It must all be remembered that Piper was paid a fortune from the cold call cover letter email SPR members, this is also mentioned in a footnote in on advantages, William James collected essays on and contrast essay between psychical research, I can't go through the figures on here but by todays standards Piper was of been close to a millionaire from the essay games money she had received. Another interesting fact from the essays of James reports that Leonora Piper's daughter used to stand outside of the seance room and collect money from the seance sitters before they would enter. There was a case where a poor maid was refused by Piper to enter because she did not have the money. Cold Call! This is an insight to the sort of and disadvantages lady Piper really was. Definitely not the sort of Lady Greg implies she was in his book. You have to do deep research to essay between find these facts out.
I don't believe Piper was a nice lady. Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. On the subject of Richard Hodgson, his work on debunking fraudulent physical mediums has been widely cited by skeptics. On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Computer! He also wrote this important paper about fake seances and paper, the response from sitters: Hodgson, R., and S. J. Davy. 1887. Essay Games! The possibilities of outline mal-observation and lapse of memory from a practical point of view.
Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 4:381-495. The skeptic Richard Wiseman praises this paper, as revealed in his article: For example, in 1887 Richard Hodgson and S. John Davey held seances in Britain (in which phenomena were faked by trickery) for unsuspecting sitters and requested each sitter to write a description of the and disadvantages of computer seance after it had ended. Hodgson and Davey reported that sitters omitted many important events and recalled others in incorrect order. Indeed, some of the accounts were so unreliable that Hodgson later remarked: The account of a trick by compare/contrast movie, a person ignorant of the method used in its production will involve a misdescription of its fundamental conditions . . . On Advantages Of Computer Games! so marked that no clue is afforded the values essays student for the actual explanation (Hodgson and Davey 1887, p. And Disadvantages! 9). Appears on the CSICOP website! Richard Wiseman also dedicates an entire chapter to compare/contrast movie and book essay Hodgson in his book Paranormality: Why we see what isn't there but his work with Leonora Piper is deliberately not mentioned! See both believers and on advantages and disadvantages of computer games, skeptics sometimes ignore evidence.
Similar to Greg, Wiseman was caught with his pants down on that one. Believers and skeptics may have something in paper outline, common after all! Like my early posts stated I believe all the material should be included both pro and con. Anyway as for my own view it is very disappointing that Hodgson wrecked his credibility with the on advantages of computer games Piper case and even fabricated data (as mentioned in my first post). I don't think Hodgson's work with the Piper case should be applauded. It certainly shouldn't be ignored but we should take all things into account. Hodgson himself claimed to cold call letter email be a medium in his later years. There is a biography of Hodgson by essay on advantages and disadvantages, Alex Baird. (1949). The Life of Richard Hodgson published by the Psychic Press but it is very expensive to get hold of.
Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. Just in case anyone is interested (I have probably bored you all to death) there's another book which mentions Piper in extensive detail: Spiritism, Hypnotism and values essays, Telepathy: As Involved in the Case of Mrs.
Leonora E. Piper and the Society for Psychical Research (1904). It is a compilation of psychical researchers (not skeptics) offering their opinion about Piper, the majority in the book such as Thomson Jay Hudson conclude that Piper utilized ESP, hypnotism and suggestion and there is no evidence for essay games, the spirit hypothesis. Jon Donnis and call cover email, Harry Price both legends. 1 November 2011. 3 years 39 weeks. he used to stand outside her house for hours observing her, almost like a stalker. Yes, to essay and disadvantages of computer games see if he could catch her doing something suspicious (e.g. Outline! meeting with secret sources). Weird stuff indeed. It was a manifestation of essay of computer games his skepticism, actually. Hodgson was also skeptical when the private detectives informed him that there was no evidence of foul play. Hodgson also once shouted at and berated a sitter for bringing an umbrella inside on a rainy day because he thought it could contain hidden information!
Hodgson started off *extremely* skeptical and even prejudiced (he wrote to write a friend that he had every intention of exposing Piper as a fraud). James was indeed skeptical of the essay and disadvantages games spirit-communication interpretation, but he did not do the essay between two teachers bulk of the research on Piper and he also had no doubt about genuine ESP occurring. Are you suggesting otherwise? Apart from on advantages and disadvantages of computer games having PIs tail Piper and apart from Hodgson stalking her (out of paper skepticism – not romance. On Advantages And Disadvantages Games! ), the investigators *also* (1) read all of Piper’s mail, (2) had strangers sit in for computer toefl essay, the actual sitters (which still gave rise to veridical hits), (3) had stenographers write down every word and and disadvantages of computer games, they noted if something approached cold or warm reading (the transcripts are available and people can come their own conclusions about whether or which hits can be reduced to cold/warm reading techniques), (4), brought Piper to another country to see how she’d perform, and (5) took great steps to test the sincerity of her trance. On that last point, note that they shoved into her mouth spoonfuls of salt and perfume, put ammonia beneath her nostrils, pricked her skin with needles, studied pupil dilation and findings research paper, reflexes, studied her respiration, and and disadvantages of computer, even put a flame on her skin to email see how her body would react. Her trance was most likely genuine. Essay And Disadvantages Of Computer! She was most likely *not* consciously faking.
In my mind there is no doubt that genuine ESP was occurring in at least *some* cases because Piper’s controls produced highly intimate hits under conditions that (in my judgment) sufficiently ruled out fraudulent methods. The question then becomes this: Was it ESP between the living and the dead, or was it ESP manifesting in secondary personalities with schizophrenic-like tendencies? Some people might look at write findings paper, the errors and ridiculous statements made by some of the essay and disadvantages of computer games controls and conclude that it must have been ESP among secondary personalities. After all, if they were genuine spirits, surely they wouldn’t have made the errors they did… right? I’m not convinced by that reasoning. The same objection could be raised against the claim that there was genuine ESP occurring. After all, if the ESP were really as highly refined as it appeared to be in some cases, well then surely those big errors would not have cropped in… right? And yet, in my mind at least, it’s *obvious* that there was genuine ESP. Let me be clear.
I’m [i]NOT[/i] convinced that it was spirit communication (neither was Piper herself btw). Write Findings Research Paper! But I’m also not ready to totally dismiss that possibility. And Disadvantages Of Computer Games! So IF it was spirit communication then *why* did the controls sometimes make big errors and ridiculous statements? Well, here are some possibilities: [b]1.A)[/b] It may be that the cold cover letter process (or whatever you want to call it) of occupying and using Piper’s brain/body had a diminishing affect on the cognitive abilities of the controls. Some of the controls seemed to suggest as much. On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Computer! [b]1.B)[/b] Related to this point, it’s certainly also possible that scattered bits of Piper’s subconscious interfered with the process and infiltrated into the communication. If these were actual factors, then it may (at least partially) explain why the controls were sometimes fuzzy, confused, or just plain ridiculous.
We simply have no idea what we’re talking about movie when we get into the mechanics of possession (and this would have been spirit *possession*). On this note, the Hodgson control once said: I find now difficulties such as a blind man would experience in trying to find his hat […] I am not wholly conscious of my own utterances because they come out automatically, impressed upon the machine [Piper’s body] […] I impress my thoughts on the machine which registers them at random, and on advantages of computer games, which are at times doubtless difficult to understand. I understand so much better the research modus operandi than I did when I was in essay on advantages and disadvantages games, your world. Similarly, Hylsop summarized skeptics of the spirit-communication interpretation in computer, the following way: when we say to the average man that we can communicate with the dead, or that we have obtained through apparitions or mediumistic phenomena facts which prove survival, they see that we are implying communication as well as survival of the discarnate, and with it they assume that the process of communication is as simple as our ordinary social intercourse. They read the essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer games records which we present as if they were merely jotted down conversations with the dead conducted very much as we talk with each other.
They make no effort to values essays investigate the complexity of the essay on advantages process, but take the phenomena at their face value and ask no scientific questions. They read an alleged message as they would a telegram or an movie and book, essay. They make no account of the conditions under which the essay of computer games message is transmitted when it claims to come from another world, but recognize exactly what the conditions are in the physical world [. ] If a message, however, claims to come from the dead, they set up objections as if they knew exactly what the between conditions are for the receipt and delivery of the communication. Fair points in my opinion. [b]2.[/b] It’s also not a stretch to think that some controls were intentionally misleading, deceptive, and mischievous. And Disadvantages Games! Some people seem to think that “transcending” into the afterlife makes one wise, mature, and compassionate. But I see no reason to dismiss the possibility of some spirits being mean-spirited or just plain childish/immature. [b]3.[/b] It’s possible that some controls were genuine spirits and essay, some were secondary creations of Piper’s mind.
Interestingly, this possibility seems to have been suggested by essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer, (one version of) the Myers control, who commented on compare essay two teachers an earlier and and disadvantages of computer games, *fictitious* personality claiming to be him! The Myers control said: I could not say it, but they were translating like a schoolboy does his first lines of write findings research paper Virgil - so terribly confused and inaccurate. But somehow I could not help it. It was not me communicating, yet I saw it going on. Oliver Lodge summarized that situation as follows: He [Myers] said it was not he, but neither was it fraud. He does not want you to stop the phenomenon, he wants to study it.
You are not to say it was wrong and get it stopped. Essay And Disadvantages Of Computer! He likes to watch the somnambulistic thing at computer toefl essay, work. It is not he that is doing it, and yet he is looking on. He does not see how it is essay of computer worked, but he finds this more interesting than the genuine communications. Essay! He did not rattle the curtains either . but it was not cheating, and essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer, he does not want you to make them think that they are cheats. Policy Research Paper Outline! He does not know how it is worked, but he is studying and he thinks it will help a great deal if he can understand how the cheating things that are not cheats are done [. ] He says he is finding out how honest non-phenomena are to be accounted for. Of Computer Games! Apparently dishonest phenomena are phenomena of extreme [interest] apart from the findings research spirit which purports to on advantages of computer be communicating. Michael Prescott also discusses this case and adds his own twist to the secondary personality interpretation: Is it possible that Myers, who was well known to call email the investigators and essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer games, mediums, existed in part as a thought-form in findings research paper, their minds, and that this thought-form acquired a degree of autonomy, thus becoming a sort of pseudo-Myers or Myers doppelganger, while the real Myers looked on in helpless fascination? I recommend checking out the entire Prescott essay for a fuller explanation of essay and disadvantages what he was getting at.
It’s worth it. See http://michaelprescott.typepad.com/micha. All of and contrast between two teachers these points could be explored further (e.g. On Advantages Of Computer! Hodgson gave a pretty sophisticated argument against the secondary-personality interpretation that Honestskeptic didn’t mention and which we should discuss at some point), but I just wanted to policy research outline give a brief reply. Happy holidays to all :) Just found this reference from a website someone quoted : Leonore Piper lived in on advantages games, the United States around the turn of the century. Outline! Through her, a number of of computer spirits related stories of persons and events concerning which Leonora Piper denied any knowledge. However, a number of values essays incidents cast doubt on her ability to contact the dead.
For example, she gained some degree of fame with a spirit revelation about the essay and disadvantages of computer circumstances of the death of a man called Dean Connor. However, when the revelation was finally checked out, it turned out to be grossly unreliable. In another incident, the family of George Pellew-whose departed spirit supposedly conveyed much of the news of the other world to Leonore- was shown the values essays information furnished by Pellew about himself; they judged it to be highly inaccurate. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Computer Games! On another occasion, Leonore claimed to movie have contacted the spirit of Bessie Beals, who was a fictitious person invented on the spur of the moment by the psychologist G. Stanley Hall. Of Computer Games! Later in compare two teachers, her life, Leonore Piper made the following statement: I cannot see but that it must have been an unconscious expression of my subliminal self. And Disadvantages! it seems to me that there is no evidence of call cover letter email sufficient scientific value to warrant acceptance of the spiritualist hypothesis. I am not sure why he calls Leonora Leonore but either way the evidence is overwhelming, Piper was not in contact with the dead. The reference is one you posted yourself to RationalWiki a month ago. Please do not lie to readers of this website. I am allowing you to and disadvantages continue posting, as I encourage debate, but your continued deceptions and compare/contrast, sock puppetry will not be tolerated any further than this point - clean up your act please, or you will be blocked. You monkeys only think you're running things. 3 years 39 weeks.
As Ivor Lloyd Tuckett wrote it could be explained by essay and disadvantages games, muscle-reading, fishing, guessing, hints obtained in the sitting, knowledge surreptitiously obtained, knowledge acquired in essay two teachers, the interval between sittings and lastly, facts already within Mrs. On Advantages! Piper's knowledge. Write Findings Research Paper! In short all information by Piper could have come through naturalistic means. Essay And Disadvantages Of Computer Games! I am not opposed to ESP but there's no need to invoke it in call cover email, mediumship cases. No, some cases only can be a form of anomalous knowledge, either between living and and disadvantages of computer games, deceased or between livings. As for Pellew she held one sitting with him and spent an entire day with him before his death, she knew all kinds of details about him and his life. But she also made many errors about Pellew. She failed at impersonating him. As quoted in my original post, Pellew's brother and cold call letter, cousin were shown the on advantages and disadvantages games communications and findings paper, they were offended by them and denied they were from the real Pellew. The Pellew control of Piper was the opposite personality of the real Pellew.
Greg doesn't mention the on advantages and disadvantages family members of Pellew in his book. As explained it's important not to ignore this evidence. You accuse mediumship proponents to make cherry-picking, but this is what you do. Errors in cold call email, mediumship may favor the spiritualist hypothesis, because if everything is essay due to compare essay between two teachers mere ESP between livings, once we have ruled out fraud, random hits and sensory filtering, there would be no mistakes. But if Piper sometimes was in essay and disadvantages of computer, contact with deceased, it is possible the error due to communication problems. Besides Pellew's case is interesting not only for the people he recognized through Piper, but also by people who did not recognize. As for paper, Eileen J. Garrett and Gladys Osborne Leonard, similar to all mediums of of computer that period they were both exposed as frauds: The only movie essay, thing that gets on that page about and disadvantages of computer games Garrett is and contrast between that she could have known by normal means what showed in the case of R101, but I disagree. Essay And Disadvantages! There are many other episodes in the life of Garrett that fit better with the spiritualist hypothesis, besides that Wikipedia is biased and unreliable source on these issues. Walter Mann comments on compare/contrast movie essay it: The Spiritualists, in their clever theories, have overlooked one thing : What becomes of the spirit of Mrs.
Piper? Does it remain close at hand, ready to return to and disadvantages Mrs. Piper's body directly the control vacates it ? If so, how is it that Mrs. Piper knows nothing of what transpires ? If, on the other hand, it goes wandering about, how is it she knows nothing about that? Spirits do not go into trances or become unconscious.
We are assured that pure spirit, freed from the earthly shell or body, is pure intellect. No one ever heard of a sleeping spirit or an values essays, unconscious spirit. How is it that Mrs, Piper gives no account of what happened to on advantages of computer her own spirit during the computer toefl sitting? The most reasonable explanation is that spirits have nothing to essay of computer games do with the matter at write research, all, and and disadvantages of computer games, that the write research paper real author of the message is on advantages of computer Mrs. Piper, and no one else.
The spirit of Piper may be overshadowed by the spirit of the deceased during the values essays temporary possession. Essay Of Computer! We not know how something happens does not mean it does not happen. 30 October 2013. 1 year 47 weeks. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. kaviraj excellent research but because Piper is compare/contrast movie and book essay controversial we will find conflicting information on essay on advantages games some of this stuff. I don't doubt that Hodgson was originally skeptical (he had exposed many physical mediums) but Hodgson's lover (his cousin) Jessie D., died in 1879 and on the day of computer toefl essay her death he claimed to have observed her spirit. I have indeed read that Hodgson originally planned to expose Piper as a fraud, but there's also conflicting references which indicate Hodgson was a believer in mental mediumship before he investigated Piper and of computer, that he used Piper in the hope to communicate with the spirit of his lover Jessie D. To me Hodgson was credulous and had the will to believe. As explained in my first post he even lied about a piece of data himself. It's clear Hodgson did go to great lengths to rule out fraud and nobody is movie and book denying that.
As far as I know no skeptics have claimed Piper used a constant secret accomplice, she didn't need to. On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Computer Games! She obtained her information about her sitters herself. Compare Essay Between! But there is evidence she may of obtained information about William James from her maid. It's mentioned in an article Herman H. Spitz, “Contemporary Challenges to William James's White Crow,” Skeptical Inquirer 28, no. And Disadvantages Games! 1 (2004): 53. Values Essays! 84. A maid in the household of William James was friendly with a maid in Piper's house and this may of and disadvantages of computer games been a source of values essays information that Piper used for private details about James. Essay On Advantages Of Computer Games! Bibliographers Frederick Burkhardt and Fredson Bowers who compiled the works of James wrote It is thus possible that Mrs. Piper's knowledge of the compare/contrast essay James family was acquired from the gossip of servants and and disadvantages of computer games, that the whole mystery rests on the failure of the people upstairs to realize that servants [downstairs] also have ears. This is a form of sensory leakage, and it's no different than what usually invalidates psi experiments - a natural cause of information.
In my mind there is computer no doubt that genuine ESP was occurring in at on advantages games, least *some* cases because Piper’s controls produced highly intimate hits under conditions that (in my judgment) sufficiently ruled out fraudulent methods. I used to believe that myself, and many psychical researchers have held that view, but then I started doing deeper research and compare/contrast movie and book, reading books on and disadvantages of computer games mentalism and conjuring and policy, realised Piper used clever mentalist techniques. Occam's razor rules out ESP and spirits in the Piper case, there is a more simpler mundane explanation for Piper's information. Essay And Disadvantages Of Computer! Ivor Lloyd Tuckett explains this in his book The Evidence for the Supernatural: A Critical Study Made with Uncommon Sense (which can be found online). According to Tuckett all Piper's mediumship could be explained by:
Muscle-reading, fishing, guessing, hints obtained in the sitting, knowledge surreptitiously obtained, knowledge acquired in the interval between sittings and policy research outline, lastly, facts already within Mrs. Piper's knowledge. So I see no reason to invoke ESP or spirits, her mediumship has a natural explanation in my opinion. Even SPR members such as Andrew Lang admitted Piper would fish for information: Mrs. Piper would cheat when she could—that is to say, she would make guesses, try to worm information out of her sitter, describe a friend of and disadvantages games his, alive or dead, as ‘Ed.,’ who may be Edgar, Edmund, Edward, Edith, or anybody. She would shuffle, and repeat what she had picked up in a former sitting with the same person; and the vast majority of her answers started from compare and contrast essay between two teachers vague references to probable facts (as that an elderly man is an essay and disadvantages games, orphan), and so worked on policy paper outline to more precise statements.
Interesting comment from you: On that last point, note that they shoved into her mouth spoonfuls of salt and essay on advantages of computer games, perfume, put ammonia beneath her nostrils, pricked her skin with needles, studied pupil dilation and reflexes, studied her respiration, and compare/contrast and book essay, even put a flame on her skin to see how her body would react. Essay Games! Her trance was most likely genuine. She was most likely *not* consciously faking. I'm skeptical about some of these claims, these tests were obviously not performed frequently in write research paper, her seance, there's only record of them only been done once. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages! From what I have read and due to Piper's fishing (cold reading) I believe she was a conscious fraud. There's other pieces of essay evidence which support this.
For example as the Wikipedia page reports: Horace Howard Furness attended a seance with Piper and concluded that the she had feigned her trances. During the seance Furness caught Piper with her eyes open, looking at some flowers which he had placed in the room. Thomas W. Essay On Advantages! M. Lund recalled that before a seance with Piper he had told another sitter about his son's illness and his wife's plans within earshot of Mrs. Piper.
During the seance Piper's control mentioned his statements. Lund suggested that Piper was not unconscious during the seance and that she had used clever guess work and other mentalist tricks. Alexander Macalister attended a seance sitting wrote that apart from one common guess Piper got nothing correct and that her trance mediumship was a poor imposture. Another sitter Thomas Barkworth who held the hand of values essays Piper in one of her seances accused her of practicing muscle reading. Martin Gardner wrote Mrs. Piper liked to hold a client's hand throughout a sitting, or even to on advantages games place the hand against her forehead. This made it easy to detect muscular reactions even when a sitter remained silent. These pieces of evidence are in favour of computer toefl essay conscious fraud. The interesting thing about all these pieces of evidence is that they appear in no spiritualist publications, they have been ignored and filtered out. It's only skeptics who cover this stuff.
The psychical researcher Walter Franklin Prince described the mediumship of Mina Crandon as the on advantages of computer most ingenious, persistent, and fantastic complex of fraud in the history of psychic research. I believe that statement should be applied to Piper. Jon Donnis and write paper, Harry Price both legends. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. James was indeed skeptical of the spirit-communication interpretation, but he did not do the bulk of the research on Piper and he also had no doubt about genuine ESP occurring. Are you suggesting otherwise? William James was an early member of the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR). And Disadvantages Of Computer! The ASPR was originally a skeptic organization (this had not been widely reported) but the and book essay history is essay and disadvantages of computer games there, but the skeptics had mostly resigned by 1890 but not James. James was always skeptical of the spirit hypothesis, but he was open to the possibility of call letter email ESP.
I never had him down as a believer in all psychic phenomena, he always seemed to be on the borderline of accepting some of it, but not a total skeptic either. His Essays in essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer, Psychical Research which were compiled after his death contain some useful information on the Piper case which has not been widely reported. By todays standards Piper would be close to a millionaire, she was paid a fortune by SPR members and private seances. I believe she was a very clever fraud, not as clever as Daniel Dunglas Home though. Actually there are cleverer frauds out there in the history of two teachers mediumship, Henry Slade managed to fool a group of scientists with some rope tricks.
Some of the tricks really are ingenious and sometimes you have to spend ages researching to see how they did them. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Computer! It's all fun. Us skeptics have to do the spiritualists homework for two teachers, them and correct their errors :) Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends. 1 November 2011. 3 years 39 weeks. Honestskeptic, respectfully my good sir (assuming you’re male!), you did not engage several of my points. But that’s okay. Essay And Disadvantages Of Computer Games! For the time being, I won’t reply to everything you said either :) But I’d just like quickly comment on computer toefl a few things.
but because Piper is controversial we will find conflicting information on some of this stuff. Which is why we should stick to the primary research as much as possible. But so far, there’s no conflict in *facts*. Essay On Advantages Of Computer! I agree with you that Piper’s controls often made foolish errors and ridiculous claims. But *all* of the original/primary investigators (including Hodgson btw) were already well aware of that and noted it publicly. Cold Cover Letter! Nobody has ever denied it. Games! The primary investigators were also upfront about the fact that controls *did* indeed sometimes fish. Values Essays! It’s in the original papers by the original investigators! A maid in the household of William James was friendly with a maid in Piper's house and this may of been a source of information that Piper used for private details about James. That is pure “maybe/maybe not” speculation and not relevant to cases where the conditions imposed upon Piper prevented that sort of thing from happening (see below). And, again, James’s direct involvement with Piper was miniscule.
According to Tuckett. I’m sorry but Tuckett is just wrong. all Piper's mediumship could be explained by muscle-reading, fishing, guessing, hints obtained in the sitting, Not in proxy cases where *strangers* sat in for on advantages of computer games, the actual sitters and values essays, not when available transcripts (which are still publicly available) fail to show these techniques at play. Hodgson, Myers, et al had seen dozens of essay on advantages fraudulent mediums and *knew* full well what to look for. As William Newbold noted, he and Hodgson had “seen much of compare and contrast professional mediums, and are thoroughly familiar with the methods of ‘fishing’ upon which they generally rely” and so they “always had such possibilities in mind”. He confidently notes that “it would have been impossible for any large amount of detailed information to have been extracted from us in this way without our knowledge.” In any case, one can just look at the available transcripts in all cases where “hits” were made. It’s a good thing they often used stenographers! knowledge acquired in the interval between sittings. Examples? Besides, controls often produced highly intimate hits right off the bat.
facts already within Mrs. Piper's knowledge. Not when Piper didn’t know the sitters. So I see no reason to on advantages and disadvantages games invoke ESP. I do, and I’m familiar with all of your objections. We may simply be at a standstill my good sir.
But that’s okay :) Horace Howard Furness attended a seance with Piper and concluded that the she had feigned her trances. During the seance Furness caught Piper with her eyes open, looking at some flowers which he had placed in the room. I’m trying to find the paper original letter that Furness wrote to James. Do you have it?
Thomas W. Essay On Advantages Games! M. Lund recalled that before a seance with Piper he had told another sitter about his son's illness and computer toefl, his wife's plans within earshot of essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer Mrs. Piper. During the seance Piper's control mentioned his statements. We can’t infer fraud from *that*. Instead, the *most* we can say is that fraud cannot be ruled out in the Lund case since the statements were (allegedly) made “within earshot”. I’m sorry, but to infer fraud on *that* simply strains credulity. Lund suggested that Piper was not unconscious during the seance. and that she had used clever guess work and compare/contrast and book essay, other mentalist tricks. Lund can say whatever he wants, but unless there is on advantages some paper out there in which Lund addresses the points I’ve made and/or shows how the trickery took place, I just don’t see why I should be impressed by his skepticism.
Alexander Macalister attended a seance sitting wrote that apart from one common guess Piper got nothing correct. Yep. That sometimes happened in Piper’s sittings, as all of the call email original investigators were *upfront* about. Another sitter Thomas Barkworth who held the hand of Piper in essay of computer games, one of her seances accused her of practicing muscle reading. I have no idea what happened with Barkworth, but Piper’s controls often produced intimate details (1) without holding the sitter’s hand, (2) when the values essays sitter was really a proxy (stranger) taking the place of the actual sitter (in which case muscle reading was literally useless), (3) when the essay and disadvantages of computer sitters themselves weren’t even aware of the (accurate) details described by the controls, etc.
Martin Gardner wrote Mrs. Piper liked to hold a client's hand throughout a sitting, or even to place the hand against her forehead. Findings! This made it easy to detect muscular reactions even when a sitter remained silent. Greg Taylor has a whole essay on why Gardner’s expose (including the bit on muscle reading) is deeply flawed. Have you not read his lengthy paper titled “Skeptical of a Skeptic?” Go to http://www.dailygrail.com/essays/2010/11. Here’s an essay and disadvantages, excerpt: Being a knowledgeable magician, Gardner knows that there are other possible techniques for achieving ‘psychic abilities’, and write findings paper, so he doesn’t just rest with the on advantages and disadvantages games fishing claim (even if he ascribes “most of Mrs. Cover! Piper’s hits” to it).
For instance, he also points out that “Mrs. Piper usually held a client’s hand throughout a sitting”, which could be suggestive of ‘muscle reading’. Essay And Disadvantages Games! This is certainly a point worth bringing up when investigating claims of mediumship, as it is another magician’s trick for ‘reading the mind’ and first came to computer essay prominence during the essay on advantages games 1870s, little more than a decade before the toefl testing of Mrs. Piper began. Muscle reading takes advantage of the ideomotor effect, where very slight involuntary reactions to questions can be ascertained through physical contact, often by holding a person’s hand.
Ironically, William James was one of the first to bring the ideomotor effect to of computer wide attention, in his foundational textbook Principles of Psychology – a point Martin Gardner does not mention in and book essay, his essay. More concerning though is that once again Gardner seems to be disregarding the source material. And Disadvantages Of Computer! For instance, in the British report on Mrs. Piper, Sir Oliver Lodge wrote: I am familiar with muscle-reading and compare/contrast movie and book essay, other simulated ‘thought-transference’ methods, and prefer to avoid contact whenever it is possible to get rid of it without too much fuss. Although Mrs. Piper always held somebody’s hand while preparing to go into the trance, she did not always continue to hold it when speaking as Phinuit.
It is also worth noting that for the bulk of of computer her career, Mrs. Piper’s ‘communicators’ used her hand(s) to write, rather than speaking ‘through’ her voice, severely limiting any chance of contact mind reading. It is difficult to see how Gardner translates Lodge’s notes on policy research paper outline avoiding contact, and the reported circumstances of Mrs. Piper’s trance, into her “usually holding a client’s hand throughout a sitting” [my emphasis]. Similarly, elsewhere in his essay he claims that Mrs. Essay And Disadvantages Of Computer Games! Piper’s eyes “were often only half closed, allowing her to observe reactions”. Gardner seems to ignore the compare/contrast movie essay fact that for of computer games, the majority of her sittings, Piper’s trance conditions had her head buried in a pillow, with the eyes “not only closed but turned from the sitter.” Not content with fishing, muscle reading, and visual cues (though all dismissed by the original researchers), Gardner believes… she had other tricks up her sleeves. She constantly saw friends and relatives of clients. A vast amount of personal information can emerge in the give and take of seance conversation, to be fed back to sitters in later seances… Obtaining facts about prominent persons is not difficult.
Obituaries can be checked. Courthouses contain birth and marriage records, real estate sales, and so on. Reference books abound in biographical data that sitters often swear a medium could not possibly know. Even disregarding the fact that Mrs. Piper and her husband were shadowed by detectives to check whether they were in some way researching “clients” (as noted by Gardner himself), there’s good reason to doubt this claim based on cold call cover letter email the original sources. As Frank Podmore pointed out, Richard Hodgson instituted strict controls to lessen the of computer chance that Mrs. Piper could ‘get up’ information on sitters prior to a seance. For instance, she… [Piper] did not even know their names… The sittings were fixed sometimes a fortnight, sometimes only findings paper, two or three days beforehand; the dates were sometimes changed… in one or other of these instances the essay on advantages games precautions taken may have been insufficient… But it would be very difficult to suppose that that loophole was always left open, that malign chance favored Mrs. Piper for nine years so punctually that the sittings which have to be written down as failures now number barely 10 per cent…. And it is at compare between, least worth remarking that the essay of computer games one series of sittings where it would have been least difficult to anticipate the names of the probable sitters and to compare between two teachers provide for their advent – the well-known Professors of Harvard, who came when Mrs Piper was under Professor James’ direction, – was one of the least successful here recorded.
If, like Gardner, we (rather cavalierly) disregard the confidence of the essay on advantages and disadvantages original researchers that Mrs. Piper was kept in the dark about the identity of the sitters – how then did she collect information about them once she knew who they were? Gardner has a suggestion: I stopped there (at a thrilling moment) to entice you to read the whole essay for yourself. Greg did an excellent job! I’ll leave it at that. Be well Honestskeptic.
18 hours 25 min. A Few weeks ago i picked up an interesting book in a second hand shop. The Other World by Albert Pauchard originally released in 1937. The author gave much of his life to examining evidence of communication after death and to spreading its truth in his homeland of Switzerland. Continuing this important work here he describes the experiences, some quite unusual, which met him after his own death. An intellectual and a man of probity, Pauchard found himself confronted by much that was both unexpected, searching and and contrast essay two teachers, rather different from the somewhat undemanding picture often described. He treats reincarnation as an established fact and emphasises that our development on earth determines the kind of experience awaiting us thereafter. A fascinating account of essay adventures of the soul in realms which all of us must eventually traverse. Only half trough currently but it's an cold letter, interesting account of a Swiss man who had planned to tell about his afterlife experiences through what turned out to be Dutch mediums.
Currently not available at Amazon. “We are such stuff that Dreams are made on”. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Games! -The Tempest Author. 21 December 2009. 2 years 10 weeks. I wish that reading the policy research comments section was not a single long essay by honestskeptic. It's great that you have a POV on essay on advantages of computer the subject, but yours isn't the only one of the Grail. Values Essays! And Grail readers are a pretty smart bunch.
As the disclaimer at the top of the site reads caveat lector!. I don't think you need to keep spamming your opinion - we get it, you're skeptical of Leonora Piper! And, for on advantages of computer, what it is worth, I did an undergraduate research paper on Leonora Piper and my research of the primary and secondary sources supports Greg's overall position on the case (in so far as I understand his position). There are legitimate skeptical arguments about Piper's mediumship, but the cold letter email more baffling aspects of her case create a great argument for why mediumship should be studied today, with modern tools and methods. Do you use your powers for essay games, good or for awesome? 10 December 2013. 3 years 42 weeks. I agree with most of what you said.
The problem with skeptics is that they demand tangible evidence that they can hold in their hand. This is compare and contrast between two teachers not possible when it comes to the spiritual realm, it is an entirely different dimension, and you will rarely ever find any evidence that is and disadvantages of computer tangible. The only essay, type of evidence that is on advantages and disadvantages acceptable in my opinion would be the reliability and credibility of the people who have seen, experienced, or witnessed such phenomena. I have a few research essays listed on my website if you would be interested in reading them. It is under the science section and labeled as Doctors Encounter the Other Side. Feel free to leave a comment, I love talking about this stuff. Take care and thank you for the article! 10 December 2013.
1 year 31 weeks. I have to respond to reliv55 in that I believe that there is at compare/contrast movie essay, least one case concerning the on advantages and disadvantages games spiritual realm that has an abundance of write findings research tangible evidence and and disadvantages of computer games, that is the values essays Case of and disadvantages games Patience Worth. Research Paper! There are thousands of poems, several novels and much conversation purported to be from Patience Worth channelled, if you will, through the medium Pearl Curran (Pearl would disclaim the label 'medium'.) Twenty-nine volumes of the material are available at the Missouri Historical Society building in St. Louis. There are also three published novels and essay and disadvantages of computer games, two unpublished works by Worth/Curran.
There is a 500+ page case study of the Patience Worth phenomenon by Dr. Toefl! Walter Franklin Prince as well as two books of her poems, one by Casper S. Yost and and disadvantages of computer, the other by Herman Behr. Granted these materials are not 'evidential' per se, but they certanily present an enigma that has not yet been explained, or seriously challenged for that matter. - AOD. 10 December 2013. 1 year 31 weeks. I so agree with your comment, I did like the touch though of values essays linking to Wikipedia articles to support your cause, when you're the one who has been writing/spamming those entries over the course of this year, flooding them with. cherry-picked information that supports just your own conclusion. The commenter you referenced in the above quote has destroyed many articles on and disadvantages games Wikipedia including mine about Patience Worth and now wants to reference his own Wikimedia inaccurate revisions to prove his point. What a laugh! I recommend that anyone really interested in information about Leonora Piper should read Richard Hodgson's Detailed Reports of movie Sittings with Leonora Piper published in the S.P.R.
Proceedings as Observations of Certain Phenomena of Trance. These observations quote original notes of on advantages of computer Hodgson regarding his investigation of Leonora Piper. I would quote from the copy I have before me except that limited space on this blog does not allow the movie and book extensive quote that would be required to provide the best refutation of comments previously made above. Hodgson's report on Piper can be found in essay of computer, the Appendix of at between two teachers, least 57 pages, much too much to post here. - AOD. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. Sorry I can't reply to essay games the other person who has been doing long posts, you seem knowledgeable even though you dismissed skeptical books in a single line lol, but this isn't place for a debate on between Piper and on advantages games, it would drag on, so I apologise, email me if you wish. I will reply to Greg and Doyle who believe I am a troll or vandal out to make trouble (you couldn't be further from the truth!). What's more interesting to me is values essays that you post under the username 'HonestSkeptic', despite already having a username here that works perfectly fine. Though perhaps we should inform readers this is a habit of yours, you post under multiple different usernames on almost every forum I've spotted you on.
At least this time (so far) you haven't created another username in which you pretend to essay of computer be your opposition, trying to ingratiate yourself with them, which you've also done multiple times? Will you be linking (spamming) to RationalWiki soon? You know those hit pieces on the likes of Michael Prescott that you wrote, then denied you wrote to readers here (under your old username here)? I did like the touch though of linking to Wikipedia articles to support your cause, when you're the one who has been writing/spamming those entries over the course of this year, flooding them with. cherry-picked information that supports just your own conclusion. Lots of errors in movie and book essay, your post and some correct stuff. On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Computer! I don't cherry pick Greg, I am one of the computer toefl very few people in the world who has read everything on the topic, my posts show that, probably even to the point of mad lol. My knowledge on this is far above you or any other spiritualist. You only read spiritualist publications, I have read both skeptical and spiritualist. The reason I don't cite spiritualist publications anymore is because they contain incorrect information and filter out essay on advantages of computer games, evidence of fraud.
I stop reading spiritualist books a few years ago, but when I was 16 I had countless spiritualist books and had read practically every popular book and write, rare on the subject. I have read 1000s of books on the subject far more than anyone else I have ever come across, I have probably read too much on the subject. I still don't understand why you include Piper in on advantages and disadvantages, your book on the afterlife when the majority of policy outline psychical researchers rejected the spirit hypothesis and the skeptics exposed her as fraudulent. I understand though that people have the will to essay on advantages of computer believe. I am not sure why you are attacking me I have applauded your research into the NDE, if I was to values essays give you a book review it would be 60% good. As I said you only slip-up IMO on the mediumship for filtering out skeptical references. A for your points, True I have had an account on this website called advanced but I forgot the password (it doesn't help that you give the essay and disadvantages passwords a bunch of movie and book random letters, they are hard to remember) I only posted to defend Wikipedia because you were accusing some of my friends on Wikipedia as being biased skeptics. Essay On Advantages Of Computer! And yes before that I had one other account, but I only movie, came to your site because someone was impersonating me (see below). As for Wikipedia, I have created a tonne of articles on Wikipedia in the past lol (who hasn't?) Wikipedia is free, it's not a crime to create Wikipedia article, but it's not just me doing it, I have countless connections and friends doing it on games countless accounts (I was even and admin on wiki once lol). As for rationalwiki and I am certainly not involved with it in anyway they sometimes copy articles from Wikipedia, a person did impersonate me on that website.
I have not been banned on any forums. Cold Cover Letter Email! A person called MU (a spiritualist) who also posted as Andrew B. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages! Chung who now posts as Tyler Snotgern and many other sock puppets impersonated me on a few forums and posting abuse in policy research paper outline, an attempt to blacklist my name (if you want this clarified speak to and disadvantages games Jim Warwood owner of the spiritualismlink forum) or to my friend Jon Donnis owner of and contrast essay two teachers badpsychics (Donnis has also been impersonated), I am entirely innocent, this Mu person did the same to of computer me on paper outline Michael Prescott's blog, everyone knows about it, it wasn't a nice thing but that's what I get I guess for being a skeptic. I had the police look into essay of computer games it but in cover email, the end I made peace with MU and he's apologised and he's no longer faking me so I don't have a problem with him anymore he's moved on essay of computer games and seen the call cover email errors of his ways. Feel free to on advantages of computer games email me if you need further clarification, it's not something I want to discuss on here, it's a private matter. I have never ever abused anyone on the internet anywhere, if you think I have done something wrong email me (if you have seen something it was probably impersonation). Your comments about me using sockpuppets are unfounded (see above for the explanation) I have used multiple accounts within policy of websites. As for some of my comments I apologise if they come across as immature, I like a bit of humour sometimes and you have to values essays remember I am twenty, thirty or forty years younger than many people on on advantages these websites. Amos Oliver Doyle writes:
The commenter you referenced in toefl, the above quote has destroyed many articles on of computer Wikipedia including mine about Patience Worth and now wants to reference his own Wikimedia inaccurate revisions to write prove his point. What a laugh! Hi Amos not sure why you are quoting Richard Hodgson, you cherry pick only his support for spiritualism but I have never seen you quote his research on unmasking fraudulent mediums like Eusapia Palladino or Henry Slade, surely you should look up his research of debunking mediums as well? As for wiki nobody owns Wikipedia articles, so not sure why you are claiming to own the Patience Worth one. Just for the record I didn't edit that one but it look neutral to me.
There is a group of editors who edit these articles, check the Wikipedia fringe noticeboard LuckyLouie etc. If you know anything about Wikipedia then you would know it doesn't tolerate pseudoscience or fringe views. As for patience worth the essay of computer games majority of psychical researchers accept that Patience Worth was a subconscious personality of Curran (you even admitted on Tymn's blog that you have a bias of denying this view) not sure what your problem is. Walter Franklin Prince didn't believe in spirits, he believed in ESP. He exposed many fraudulent physical mediums including Mina Crandon (you never mention this). I have not seen a single post from you anywhere on the internet ever admitting a medium has been caught in fraud Doyle.
Like Tymn you claim every historical medium was genuine, IMO it's not honest to ignore the fraud. You only ever report the positive stuff but the entire history of spiritualism is computer essay riddled with fraud. Are you honest to admit Helen Duncan, Mina Crandon, Henry Slade and William Eglinton and other bogus physical mediums were exposed as frauds by psychical researchers Doyle? If not then you have a lot to learn about psychical research my friend. On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Computer Games! You would be surprised to call learn that the majority of psychical researchers are not friends of the spiritualists and never supported their pet theories. You are closing your eyes to many pieces of evidence due to pre-conceived beliefs, that's not what psychical research is about, but you come across as a spiritualist and not a psychical researcher, so perhaps my mistake. But my complaint is and disadvantages games that you have not studied psychical research and it is important to do so if you are going to write findings research paper quote certain people, the majority of psychical researchers have exposed mediumship as fraudulent (did you read Hereward Carrington or Harry Price?). Hint look up the history of the SPR, Harry Price and his National Laboratory of Psychical Research etc etc.
If fraud occurs we shouldn't ignore it! We should admit it. Richard Hodgson was caught fabricating data Doyle (see my first post). Good luck on your research. Perhaps in the future you and Tymn can blog on fraudulent mediums instead of just claiming they are all genuine?·
I will end with some comments from on advantages and disadvantages of computer games Joseph McCabe on Piper: When Sir O. Write Research! Lodge presented to Mrs. Of Computer! Piper a sealed envelope containing a number of letters of the computer toefl essay alphabet, she could not read one of essay and disadvantages games them, and declined to try again. She could not answer simple tests about Pellew. She gave Professor James messages from Gurney after his death (1888), and James pronounced them *' tiresome twaddle. When Myers died in 1901 and essay, left a sealed envelope containing a message, she could not get a word of it. When Hodgson died in 1905 and left a large amount of manuscript in cipher, she could not get the essay games least clue to it. And Contrast Essay Two Teachers! When friends put test questions to the spirit of Hodgson about essay on advantages and disadvantages games his early life in call cover, Australia, the essay of computer answers were all wrong. Mrs. Piper fished habitually and toefl, obviously for information from her sitters. She got at essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer, names by childishly repeating them with different letters (a very common trick of mediums), and often changed them.
She made the policy paper outline ghost of Sir Walter Scott talk the most arrant nonsense about the sun and planets. She was completely baffled when a message was given to her in Latin, though she was supposed to on advantages and disadvantages be speaking in the name of the spirit of the learned Myers, and it took her three months to get the compare between two teachers meaning (out of a dictionary ?) of one or two easy words of it. Of Computer! She gave a man a long account of an uncle whom he had never. had ; and essay between, it turned out that this information was in on advantages, the encyclopaedia, and toefl essay, related to and disadvantages another man of the same name. Compare/contrast And Book Essay! In no instance did she ever give details that it was impossible for her to on advantages learn in a normal way. After reading books by Clodd, McCabe, Podmore, Tuckett et all. Research Outline! There should be no doubt in your mind if you really look at and disadvantages, the evidence that Piper was not in contact with spirits, it's up to you if you want to still go on believing and cold cover email, denying the facts. Either way, Good luck with your research. I have given Greg and his book positive remarks and like Martin Gardner I believe in the afterlife, so not sure why the personal attacks, I am definitely not a militant skeptic, half of me is one of you guys, I believe in essay and disadvantages, some of this stuff just not mediumship. There is no need for a war between believers and policy paper, skeptics, we should learn to co-operate but I am no longer researching the essay on advantages and disadvantages subject it's taken too much time away from my biology career.
Take care and have a good Christmas all, this time of year it not the values essays time for on advantages and disadvantages, arguing. we are all on the same team at values essays, the end of the day. You may find the truth on essay on advantages and disadvantages this subject if you seek it, (you have to write findings research read a heck load of books though, check the ones I cited)! The Honest (and slightly mad) skeptic :) Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends. 1 November 2011. 3 years 39 weeks. you dismissed skeptical books in a single line. I did no such thing. My friend, frankly, you have no clue what I have read or not read. I read skeptical pieces all of the and disadvantages games time. Just because I don't agree with you doesn't mean I'm being unfairly dismissive.
Ironically, I believe you are dismissing out of hand. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. You dismissed Ivor Lloyd Tuckett's masterpiece in compare and contrast essay between two teachers, a single line sorry but he's wrong. He wasn't wrong, it was one of on advantages and disadvantages games most detailed refutations of Pipers mediumship, nearly 80 pages long. Write Research! As he explained Piper's mediumship had a natural not supernatural explanation. I have posted far too much on here, I don't have time to discuss this anymore. If spirits exist anyone should be able to see them, the whole idea of mediumship is bogus.
The whole dark room thing was a scam. In fact reports of apparitions contradict mediums. There is no medium involved in apparitional sightings. Spirits don't communicate through peoples bodies, the idea that select mediums can see spirits and other can't was a con to make money. There is no evidence for mediumship it's all fraud see Hereward Carrington, Joseph McCabe, Harry Price or Joe Nickell etc. All the popular mediums of the day such as Moses, Palladino, Home, Duncan, Fay etc were exposed. Essay Games! The majority of psychical researchers rejected the spirit-hypothesis of mediumship. There is policy a wealth of information about this here: There isn't a single historical medium who was investigated who was not exposed. If you want an overview see Georgess McHargue's book Facts, Frauds, and Phantasms: A Survey of the Spiritualist Movement or Joseph Rinn's book which was a masterpiece at essay on advantages of computer, uncovering the cold call cover tricks of essay and disadvantages games fraudulent mediums. I came to realise after studying conjuring that mediumship was mostly magic tricks, sleight of hand, deception and suggestion.
Occam's Razor agrees. But, kaviraj are you Skippy Borzakov? You have attracted attention from the Tyler Snotgern (MU) He was recently exposed here by and book essay, Murgatroid (who I suspect is Eveshi, someone MU previously impersonated but I have not spoken to in months) and Mac. If you want to on advantages of computer know his darker side: When Greg said he had seen me trolling forums, he was probably referring to the impersonations that this MU person has done of me and other skeptics, I don't usually post on forums and haven't done in many months, the impersonations should be easy to tell. MU has been impersonating people for over twelve years, he's also targeted skeptics such as Jon Donnis, Arouet and Paul C. Anagnostopoulos, he no longer does it to me because I tried to movie and book be nice to essay games him. I am not sure if he has become clean or not, I was always convinced deep down MU was an ok person but had a lot of call email anger so took it out on people online, I used to do this myself as a kid so I understand but MU is essay on advantages of computer games 40 years older than me, he's almost a granddad so it's kind of weird that someone that old spends his time trolling, I don't think he's married or got any kids. He comes across as very lonely, I feel sorry for him in a way.
I consider myself a nice person and despite all he has done to me I wish him all the best. No point in hating an enemy :) Despite my criticism of essay mediumship I do believe in the afterlife, Harry Price was a heroe of and disadvantages mine. I became addicted to psychical research but over compare and contrast essay the last year have given it up for natural science which is the and disadvantages of computer games real me. People should also look at the positive things I have posted rather than always the negative stuff about mediumship. I no longer research the subject this will probably the cold cover letter email last time I visit a blog on the subject. I'm back to NZ after Christmas. Take care. Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends. 2 years 47 weeks. But, kaviraj are you Skippy Borzakov?
Kaviraj isn't Skippy Borzakov. I know this because *I* am Skippy Borzakov. 20 hours 26 sec. You only read spiritualist publications, I have read both skeptical and spiritualist. And HOW would you know what Greg has or hasn't read? It's not the depth of the rabbit hole that bugs me. It's all the essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer rabbit SH*T you stumble over on your way down. Red Pill Junkie. 30 October 2013. 1 year 47 weeks.
You only call cover, read spiritualist publications, I have read both skeptical and spiritualist. And HOW would you know what Greg has or hasn't read? Come on, Greg is like well-known believer although nobody really is sure if he is! But he totally! Or isn't! 20 hours 26 sec. Well known by whom?
Randi his ilk? Greg happens to be one of the most skeptical-minded individuals I've come across with. If he weren't, he would've titled his book Stop Worrying: There Totally is an Afterlife ;) It's not the depth of the essay rabbit hole that bugs me. It's all the rabbit SH*T you stumble over on your way down. Red Pill Junkie. 30 October 2013. 1 year 47 weeks. Also you claim to be non-objective but you are a well known spiritualist. Well I don't know if you are well-known or not. I'm just making fun of HonestSkeptic/Advanced
30 October 2013. 1 year 47 weeks. 12 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. I take exception to the statement that this is not the place for debate on computer ANY paranormal issue. This is THE perfect place for such debates.
I am retired form occult investigations (not stupid ghost hunter nonsense actual arrest the serial killer stuff). I am a person of faith, but that is the essay games limit of my submersion into the realms of and contrast between two teachers gullibility. I have an opened mind to such things, unlike most self proclaimed skeptics that are just the opposite essay of computer games extreme of the woo-woo whack jobs. I trust certain sites as references because of values essays their honesty, or at least their transparency so that other members, such as Greg, can point out contradicting information and allow me to review facts and form valid conclusions. Though I find it suspect that no one has offered contradictory information regarding the other 4 points made, the mediumship argument is rather ridiculous. Houdini buried that dead horse a hundred years ago. I'd love to submit to essay on advantages of computer games the arguments of an after life, especially given my religious faith, but the research paper obviously biased information regarding some of the information casts a shadow on all the information given. On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Computer! Despite all that, I still find this site of value if for no other reason, than the references to opposing information (not opinions. Opinions are useless, only information matters).
1 November 2011. 3 years 39 weeks. the mediumship argument is rather ridiculous. I'd love it if you could (1) summarize the reasons/arguments provided by Greg and then (2) explain where and and book essay, how Greg goes wrong in those arguments. Houdini buried that dead horse a hundred years ago. Those of us who've been studying psychical research (including research carried out by early SPR members) for essay and disadvantages games, several years would love it if you explained how Houdini buried the dead horse of people anomalously acquiring information under stringent conditions that (at least really SEEM) to rule out fraud. the obviously biased information regarding some of the information casts a shadow on all the information given. 12 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. Because most non critical thinkers cling to anecdotal evidence rather than scientific evidence my own personal run in with the computer toefl now dead Sylvia Brown at on advantages of computer games, a psychic fair in West Virginia in 1993 went as follows: I was shocked at her revelation that my dead friend Dave was warning me to save another friend, how could she know? I later found out between, she knew, because she pumped my then wife for information about me then encouraged her to have me sit for games, a reading.
Enough? of compare and contrast essay between course it's not, because you are most likely incapable of seeing reason. I'm open minded about on advantages of computer games these things, but I prefer evidence to wishful thinking. here are the things to research look up online for and disadvantages games, your complete answer. sorry. there is policy research outline no Santa. Houdini with pro-spiritualist Sir Arthur Connan Doyle. Houdini Bess w/ Oscar Teale exposing slate writing fraud.
Houdini Bess - slate writing fraud. Houdini Duplicates a Spirit Photograph - 1. Houdini Duplicates a Spirit Photograph - 2. Houdini Duplicates a Spirit Photograph - 3. Houdini Duplicates a Spirit Photograph - 4. Houdini Duplicates a Spirit Photograph - 5. Houdini with Exposed Medium Pecoraro. Houdini with Spiritualist Margery. Margery Conducting a Seance. Margery in Box (restricts her movements) Below Link to TheHistoryNet.com - explains Houdini vs.
Margery. The Medium and the Magician Sir Authur Connon Doyle Supports Margery. Houdini Threatens to essay games Sue Doyle. Houdini's $5,000 Challenge to Margery. Houdini Explaining Margery's Box - 1.
Houdini Explaining Margery's Box - 2. Houdini Disguiesd Himself at Seances. Ad for Houdini's Exposure Show - 1. Ad for Houdini's Exposure Show - 2. Ad for values essays, Houdini's Exposure Show - 3. Hippodrome Review of Houdini's Spiritualism Exposure. Houdini offers $10,000 in HPC Stock to any Legitimate Medium. Scientific American Mag. Denies Margery its Prize.
Children attending Houdini Spiritualism Exposure. Headline Proclaims Houdini's Spiritualism Exposure. Houdini Letter - Spiritualism Challenge. Houdini Letter - Spiritualism. Houdini Testifying for Congressional Committee. Houdini with Senator Capper.
19 January 2014. 3 years 13 weeks. Because most non critical thinkers cling to games anecdotal evidence rather than scientific evidence my own personal run in with the now dead Sylvia Brown at a psychic fair in West Virginia in 1993 went as follows: I was shocked at her revelation that my dead friend Dave was warning me to save another friend, how could she know? I later found out she knew, because she pumped my then wife for information about me then encouraged her to have me sit for a reading. Essay! Enough? of course it's not, because you are most likely incapable of seeing reason. And Disadvantages! I'm open minded about these things, but I prefer evidence to wishful thinking. here are the values essays things to look up online for on advantages and disadvantages, your complete answer. sorry. there is no Santa. Houdini with pro-spiritualist Sir Arthur Connan Doyle. Houdini Bess w/ Oscar Teale exposing slate writing fraud.
Houdini Bess - slate writing fraud. Houdini Duplicates a Spirit Photograph - 1. Houdini Duplicates a Spirit Photograph - 2. Houdini Duplicates a Spirit Photograph - 3. Houdini Duplicates a Spirit Photograph - 4. Houdini Duplicates a Spirit Photograph - 5. Houdini with Exposed Medium Pecoraro. Houdini with Spiritualist Margery. Margery Conducting a Seance. Margery in Box (restricts her movements) Below Link to TheHistoryNet.com - explains Houdini vs.
Margery. The Medium and the Magician Sir Authur Connon Doyle Supports Margery. Houdini Threatens to Sue Doyle. Houdini's $5,000 Challenge to and contrast essay two teachers Margery. Houdini Explaining Margery's Box - 1. Houdini Explaining Margery's Box - 2. Houdini Disguiesd Himself at Seances. Ad for Houdini's Exposure Show - 1.
Ad for Houdini's Exposure Show - 2. Ad for Houdini's Exposure Show - 3. Hippodrome Review of Houdini's Spiritualism Exposure. Houdini offers $10,000 in HPC Stock to any Legitimate Medium. Scientific American Mag.
Denies Margery its Prize. Children attending Houdini Spiritualism Exposure. Headline Proclaims Houdini's Spiritualism Exposure. Houdini Letter - Spiritualism Challenge. Houdini Letter - Spiritualism. Houdini Testifying for Congressional Committee. Houdini with Senator Capper.
what we find with people who are involved with the skeptical movement is on advantages of computer that they use attractive words like critical thinking and compare two teachers, skeptical. On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Computer! these produce what could be discribed as a wizard of oz effect where once you have had a look behind the curtain its really not that impressive. the skeptical community cling to the delusion (some probably really believe) that they are open minded truth seekers. whilst exepting anacdotal evidence as proof or even a high-grade type evidence. is values essays irrational dismissing it out-of-hand is on advantages and disadvantages of computer equally irrational and toefl, this needs to of computer games be understood. whilst some believes cling to findings research paper anacdotes (sometimes for emotional reasons) not all do. some do take it on scientific evidence 130 years of on advantages and disadvantages research in some cases. of couse talling a psuedoskeptic this is futile but just because you don't like it does not mean it is not scientific. 15 December 2013.
3 years 5 weeks. If this Piper woman's so disreputable, how was it possible to findings research paper miss all this stuff when preparing the book? Is the and disadvantages goal to discredit any actual research being done? The 'Probably' in policy paper outline, the title. I don't get this at all.
I'm having buyers remorse and the book hasn't even arrived yet. The Victorians were a weird bunch. The whole spiritualism thing is a lot of and disadvantages fun, but really?! I want to believe this stuff and you seem to be going out of your way to cold call cover letter email ruin that belief dude. Essay And Disadvantages Games! I'll read the research paper book, and you've made your money, which is probably the on advantages of computer games only point in the exercise. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. If this Piper woman's so disreputable, how was it possible to values essays miss all this stuff when preparing the essay on advantages games book?
They just ignore it, that's what they do! They have been doing it for over 120 years. Any negative information about values essays mediums and games, they will filter it out. They only policy research outline, report the alleged positive stuff. Jon Donnis and and disadvantages games, Harry Price both legends.
10 December 2013. 1 year 31 weeks. Those who are interested might want to findings paper look at Houdini's own account of the Margery investigation. Of interest is and disadvantages games his own statements including I was to movie essay have the right to reject any person proposed as a member of the committee [to investigate Margery]with me. My reason for this was, as I explained to them, that while an ordinary investigator, whether layman, professor, or scientist, could make a mistake and essay of computer, later correct himself without damage to values essays his standing, I was in a different position, for essay on advantages games, due to the peculiar nature of my work my reputation was at state and I could not run the values essays risk of having it injured. One needs to read the whole excerpt which apparently is from Houdini's Margery the Medium Exposed. To me, Houdini does not seem to be a neutral or non-biased investigator. As he stated, his reputation was at stake! (Much like Randi I think.) - AOD. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks.
Of interest is his own statements including I was to essay games have the right to reject any person proposed as a member of the committee [to investigate Margery]with me. Interesting you are adding things to quotes that were not originally there and quoting mining AOD. This is the real quote and the full context: They discussed the Black articles with me and asked why it was that I would not write on Spiritualism for them. I explained that the research work involved was such that I could not entrust it to anyone else and that it was impossible for me to spare the values essays time which this and the writing of the articles would require, but I advised them to form an on advantages and disadvantages, investigating committee and said if the other members were honest, reliable, and compare/contrast and book essay, qualified, I would serve as one without pay with the stipulation that I was to have the right to reject any person proposed as a member of the committee with me. My reason for this was, as I explained to them, that while an ordinary investigator, whether layman, professor, or scientist, could make a mistake and on advantages and disadvantages of computer, later correct himself without damage to his standing, I was in a different position, for due to policy research paper the peculiar nature of my work my reputation was at stake and essay on advantages and disadvantages games, I could not run the write findings paper risk of having it injured. This was agreed to before they left my office, but sometime, afterwards hearing that they had selected a committee without consulting me I wrote the and disadvantages following letter to values essays protect myself. Doesn't come across as biased to me. To me, Houdini does not seem to be a neutral or non-biased investigator. But neither are yourself AOD you are a devout spiritualist.
You blog and post on many websites claiming all kinds of mediums communicated with spirits, but not in a single post have admitted a medium was a caught in fraud. As soon as fraud is mentioned you get angry and accuse people of being biased or pseudoskeptics. This is why conversations with spiritualists are pointless because no matter the evidence you will still go on believing, like you have done in essay and disadvantages, very blatant cases of call letter fraud like Helen Duncan. You have even admitted on Michael E. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages! Tymn's blog you have a bias: Maybe it is write findings research bias on essay on advantages and disadvantages games my part though, hoping that Patience Worth was a real spirit and not the subconscious mind of Pearl Curran. As for Mina Crandon - Walter Franklin Prince wrote she was the and book most ingenious, persistent, and fantastic complex of fraud in the history of psychic research.
Would you agree with Prince on essay on advantages and disadvantages games that Doyle? Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. Those of us who've been studying psychical research (including research carried out by early SPR members) for several years would love it if you explained how Houdini buried the dead horse of people anomalously acquiring information under stringent conditions that (at least really SEEM) to rule out fraud. I have not come across any evidence for cold call, stringent conditions, have you looked up the essay and disadvantages games case of Douglas Blackburn and George Albert Smith? They managed to fool the SPR for over 30 years that they had genuine telepathy abilities. Blackburn later confessed: For nearly thirty years the values essays telepathic experiments conducted by and disadvantages of computer, Mr. G. A. Smith and myself have been accepted and cited as the basic evidence of the truth of thought transference.
. the values essays whole of those alleged experiments were bogus, and originated in the honest desire of two youths to show how easily men of scientific mind and training could be deceived when seeking for evidence in essay, support of a theory they were wishful to and book essay establish. Which shows how gullible some of the early SPR members were. Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. Houdini with pro-spiritualist Sir Arthur Connan Doyle. Houdini Bess w/ Oscar Teale exposing slate writing fraud. Houdini Bess - slate writing fraud. Houdini Duplicates a Spirit Photograph - 1. Houdini Duplicates a Spirit Photograph - 2. Houdini Duplicates a Spirit Photograph - 3.
Houdini Duplicates a Spirit Photograph - 4. Houdini Duplicates a Spirit Photograph - 5. The best book about Houdini in my opinion is essay of computer games Final Seance: The Strange Friendship Between Houdini and Conan Doyle by Massimo Polidoro. My sister met Polidoro at the The Amaz!ng Meeting (TAM) 2013 at a casino in Enterprise, Nevada. Got a signed copy of findings paper his book. The book contains many private letters between Arthur Conan Doyle and Houdini. It was interesting to me to see how credulous Doyle really was, he sent letters claiming Houdini himself had occult powers as well as other magicians such as the Davenport Brothers. Doyle couldn't understand that physical mediumship was just clever magician and sleight of hand tricks. Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends.
9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. I take exception to on advantages and disadvantages of computer the statement that this is not the place for write findings research, debate on ANY paranormal issue. This is THE perfect place for such debates. I am retired form occult investigations (not stupid ghost hunter nonsense actual arrest the serial killer stuff). It's not a true place for a debate because no matter the evidence the spiritualists on this website won't accept any of the essay games mediums were caught in values essays, fraud. It's like a scientist trying to show a creationist evidence for common descent, the creationist will just ignore it. On Advantages! If you want a true place to debate you should join Jon Donnis on his badpsychics forum. Values Essays! Donnis is a famous skeptic on the topic of psychics and mediumship. Anyone is invited. Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends.
9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks. I trust certain sites as references because of essay on advantages their honesty, or at least their transparency so that other members, such as Greg, can point out contradicting information and allow me to review facts and form valid conclusions. Computer! Though I find it suspect that no one has offered contradictory information regarding the other 4 points made, the mediumship argument is rather ridiculous. Of course the of computer games believers can’t refute the evidence presented by the sceptics, all they can do is ignore it and go after the sceptics themselves with ad-hominem attacks like Greg did to me in his post.
I presented conclusive evidence Piper was not in contact with spirits, but all that data was ignored and I was personally attacked with some deliberate false information. The believers have a long-history of doing this. This is why it is cold letter pointless in on advantages of computer games, doing debates on believer websites. I also noted Greg posts libel about sceptics and conspiracy theories on values essays his personal twitter page, this is quite uncalled for and bordering on personal stalking. He's been moaning for essay on advantages of computer games, months it seems that skeptics own Wikipedia pages yet why doesn't he edit Wikipedia himself? Nobody owns Wikipedia pages. The whole Guerrilla Skepticism Wikipedia conspiracy theory was a hoax. Susan Gerbic talks about the conspiracy theory here:
According to Gerbic: I was attacked by all sorts, an astrologer wanted me to debate him. Others made fun of my hats (can you imagine!) Rupert's latest blog misspelled my name, Susan Gerbik, so much for his investigative skills. Write Findings Research Paper! Tim Farley and essay games, I discuss the drama and what led up to two teachers it on this episode of Skepticality Jerry Coyne jumps into the fray and essay and disadvantages of computer, defends us in a series of values essays blogs. Essay And Disadvantages Of Computer! This is the values essays first one.
Here is and disadvantages of computer games a blog by an astrologer (not sure if it was the same one that challenged me) This is the first in a series by a person who tried to edit Sheldrakes page, got into arguments with just about everyone and ended up storming off complaining about paper my team. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages! The really funny thing is that this person only made one tiny edit to the Sheldrake page and accused us of having an agenda, this person has only ever edited on the Sheldrake talk page and policy research outline, no where else on WP. Looking over my notes, this appears to be the very first blog from from all this drama and it dates back to 2012, and just tonight I discover that this person has written a book about this mess and I'm in on advantages and disadvantages games, it (with my name spelled correctly, Sheldrake are you listening?). Amazing! With this new knowledge perhaps daily grail can retract their previous claims about skeptics high jacking the policy Rupert Sheldrake Wikipedia article. Games! :) Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks.
Well known by research, whom? Randi his ilk? Greg happens to essay on advantages of computer games be one of the most skeptical-minded individuals I've come across with. If he weren't, he would've titled his book Stop Worrying: There Totally is an write paper, Afterlife ;) Well everyone is skeptical about something.
My complaint is that his book ignores skeptical publications and his bibliography consists of mostly spiritualist and occult publications (skeptics like Ivor Lloyd Tuckett or Joseph Rinn who demolished the Piper case and reports of deathbed visions are not mentioned anywhere in on advantages games, the book). If he was a true skeptic then he would be questioning some of the gullible spiritualist references that he used but he accepts many of these anecdotes at face value and does not question his own beliefs. See the review by Lawrence Trayne Notabuck on amazon. He also has a poor understanding of and contrast between two teachers Occam's razor. In places he advocates magical supernatural entities whilst ignoring the simpler explanation of fraud, coincidence, memory loss, dissociative states or hallucination. The book I recommend is The Science of Ghosts: Searching for Spirits of the essay on advantages of computer games Dead by Joe Nickell, it's the opposite of Greg's book on almost every level. It is a worthwhile exercise to compare both of the books. Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends. 9 December 2013. 3 years 41 weeks.
And HOW would you know what Greg has or hasn't read? Are you a psychic? ;) I know what he's read by looking at his bibliography :) I don't mind being called a psychic, I have had some strange telepathic experiences with my sister and some of paper my friends. If telepathy exists I don't believe it can be done at will though. For example I did some number guessing number experiments and when we didn't think about essay on advantages games it we got the numbers correct but every time we consciously thought about it, it failed. Essay! The psychologist William McDougall believed telepathy was a subconscious process. There's also some interesting stuff from of computer Whately Carington about association of compare essay two teachers ideas the and disadvantages idea that people with similar interests or personalities will have higher telepathy hits. Carington's best known and toefl essay, most controversial contribution to parapsychology is his association theory of and disadvantages games telepathy, the basis of which is the concept that minds are systems of movie and book ideas and sensa (termed psychons by Carington).
Such psychon systems, he held, are not wholly insulated from one another, and in telepathy interaction between psychons in different minds takes place according to the same laws of association as govern the and disadvantages of computer interaction of psychons in a single mind. Carington was a critic of the spirit-hypothesis of mediumship, he developed world-assoicate tests and had proven that the alleged spirit controls of mediums like Rudi Scheidner and the feda control of Gladys Osborne Leonard were not spirits but subconscious personalities. Computer Toefl! Carington published these results in on advantages games, a series of papers called The Quantitative Study of values essays Trance Personalities, this is a major blow to the spirit hypothesis of mediumship. I have not read Greg's book in a few weeks but I believe he did not mention the work of Carington when he mentioned Gladys Osborne Leonard. I am not accusing him of ignoring Carington, I don't think he is essay on advantages games aware of his research. Computer Toefl! If I am wrong feel free to correct me. Not all us skeptics are bad, some of us do deep research :) Jon Donnis and Harry Price both legends.
20 hours 26 sec. I know what he's read by looking at his bibliography :) You're making an inference by extrapolation. Essay Games! You're assuming that if a title wasn't referenced in his book, then it's either unknown to him, or that he's deliberately omitting them --look who's accusing him of libelous comments. I haven't had a chance to read Greg's book yet.
I'm also not versed in the case of Piper at the degree Greg --or you-- are. But one thing that is plain to values essays me is on advantages that it's you the one who's making the absolutist claims --All mediums were proven to be charlatans; there's nothing to substantiate mediumship, etc etc (I'm paraphrasing you here, but nonetheless the observation stands). When someone makes such kind of blanket statements, I become highly skeptic of compare/contrast and book their arguments. It's also been you the one who's tried to hijack this thread. When someone bothers to write comments that are more lengthy than the original text, then maybe that someone should've written an article of on advantages and disadvantages of computer games their own. As a TDG member, you have the option of writing entries in your personal blog. Other members would then be free to cold assess your arguments judge whether they hold any water or not. As for the validity of mediumship, and what it ultimately means, I personally still keep it in essay and disadvantages of computer games, my gray box. Because even if the information was obtained by the medium's subconscious, that's still pretty darn interesting in my book; and between, it would still urge us to re-evaluate our current materialistic paradigm. It's not the games depth of the rabbit hole that bugs me. It's all the rabbit SH*T you stumble over on your way down.
Red Pill Junkie. 1 November 2011. 3 years 39 weeks. It's not a true place for a debate because no matter the values essays evidence the spiritualists on this website won't accept any of the mediums were caught in fraud. What the and disadvantages hell are you talking about? I guarantee you that everyone on here knows that many SPR investigators (and non-SPR investigators) have exposed dozens of fraudulent mediums. Nobody denies that that there have been (and continue to be) a depressingly large number of frauds. Just because I (and Greg and others) disagree with you on Piper doesn't mean that people on this site refuse to values essays accept any of the on advantages and disadvantages of computer games mediums were caught in cold call email, fraud.
Friend, get a hold of yourself. It's like a scientist trying to show a creationist evidence for common descent, I use the exact same analogy in essay on advantages and disadvantages, the other direction. Psi-deniers are just as bad as evolution deniers. If you got something of value out cover email, of the Daily Grail, please help us out and chip in a dollar or two on Patreon or via PayPal.
TDG09 theme is essay of computer based on the original design by values essays, Michael Hutagalung. DG logo icon courtesy of @GrailSeeker.
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analystic essay How to develop and write an and disadvantages, analytic essay. Between. Argument : Writing an analytic essay requires that you make some sort of argument. The core of essay on advantages and disadvantages games this argument is compare/contrast and book essay called a thesis. It is your claim, succinctly stated in essay on advantages and disadvantages of computer games a single sentence. What do budding literary critics such as yourselves argue about? You make a pervasive, persistent case that a certain thing is and book essay true about a piece of literature. This thing should not be readily obvious to the casual reader of the literature in question. It is what you draw out of the book or essay, how you interpret it. It is a claim that must be supported by specific evidence from the text. Thesis statement: At least once during the essay on advantages and disadvantages course of writing your essay, isolate what you consider to be your thesis. Values Essays. Is your proposition both arguable and reasonable?
If it is obvious (i.e. Mary Rowlandson used the Bible for comfort during her captivity) you don’t have an argument. Essay And Disadvantages Games. Argument requires analysis (i.e. taking things apart and call cover, explaining them). One test that may help is asking yourself what the opposite essay on advantages, side of your argument would be. A good, complicated thesis (which was proposed by one of values essays your classmates) is that Although Mary Rowlandson says she often used the essay and disadvantages of computer games Bible as a source of comfort during her captivity, a closer reading of write findings her narrative suggests her faith may have been more troubled by her experience than she lets on. One useful structure for writing thesis statements is the although form used above: Although x seems to be true about this piece of literature, y is in and disadvantages of computer fact more true (or makes our thinking about x more complex). In this form you present both sides of your argument at once and show which side you’re on. Your job in the paper is to convince your reader to join you. Another way to policy paper write an effective thesis statement is to use the form If we look closely at x (e.g. how Bradford defines freedom) we discover y (that ). In order to find something to argue: Look for images or metaphors that the author uses consistently. What other sort of pattern can you identify in of computer the text?
How do you interpret this pattern so that your reader will understand the book, essay, poem, speech, etc. better? What philosophical, moral, ethical, etc. ideas is the author advocating or opposing? What are the consequences of accepting the author's argument? Explain how the work functions as a piece of rhetoric-- how does the author attempt to convince his or her reader of something? For instance, what widely held beliefs do they use to support their argument? How do they appeal to emotions, logic… Re-examine something that the policy research paper text or most readers take for granted (that Thoreau’s book Walden represents his attempt to escape from society). Question this major premise and see where it takes you.
Ask yourself if an author’s literary argument is inconsistent with itself or is in some way philosophically dangerous, inadequate, unethical, or misleading. Examine how characters are presented in a story. How do they help the main character to develop? Which characters are trustworthy? Which are not? Why are they presented this way? What counts as evidence: Structure : How the parts of the book or essay follow one another; how the on advantages and disadvantages games parts are assembled to make a whole? Why does the author start where they start, end where they end? What is the logical progression of thought? How might that progression be intended to affect the reader What effect might this progression of ideas have on a generic reader or on a reader from the time period in which the work was written?
Does the piece move from the general to computer toefl the specific or vice versa? If you could divide the book/essay into essay and disadvantages sections, units of meaning, what would those sections be? How are they related to compare and contrast essay between each other? Note that chapters, while they form obvious sections can themselves be grouped. Referring to the text : In writing analytic papers that address any kind of literature, it is necessary to essay and disadvantages of computer refer to the text (the specific words on the page of the computer book) in order to support your argument. This means that you must quote and interpret passages that demonstrate or support your argument.
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Each of these chapters could also be called an essay. Within these essays, Thoreau sometimes tells stories. The book itself is not a story, but closer to a narrative, which is non-fiction. Always go through at on advantages, least two drafts of you paper . Compare. Let your paper sit, preferably for 24 hours between drafts sometime during the process of your writing. Eliminate first person pronoun (I) in your final draft (it’s OK for rough drafts and may help you write). If your paragraphs are more a full page or more in length it is more than likely that they are tooooooo long . Probably you have too many ideas in the air at once. Consider breaking the paragraph in half--into two smaller, but related arguments.
Your reader needs a break, needs more structure in on advantages and disadvantages order to be able to follow your meaning. If several of your paragraphs are exceedingly short (4-5 lines), it is likely that you are not developing your ideas thoroughly enough--that you are writing notes rather than analysis. Short paragraphs are usually used as transitional paragraphs, not as content paragraphs. (Short paragraphs can be used in the rhetorical devise of reversal where you lead your reader down a certain path (to show them one side of the values essays argument, the one you are going to oppose) and then turn away from that argument to state the true argument of essay on advantages your paper.) Employ quotation often. One quotation per research paper outline, argumentative paragraph is on advantages of computer usually necessary. Depending upon research the length and complexity of the passage or topic you're dealing with, more quotations may be useful to essay and disadvantages of computer games prevent you from getting too far away from the text.
Your quotations combined with your interpretations are your proof. Be sure that you show your reader how they should interpret these quotations in order to follow your argument. (Almost every quotation should be followed by research an interpretation, a deeper reading of what is being said and games, how its being said. This interpretation demonstrates how the quotation supports the claim you're making about it). Pay attention to metaphor, phrasing, tone, alliteration, etc. Values Essays. How is the author saying what they are saying--what does that teach us about the essay on advantages of computer games text? Remember to write directive (sometimes called topic) sentences for your paragraphs . The first sentence of any paragraph should give your reader an idea of what the paragraph is going to say and how the paragraph will connect to and book essay the larger argument.
It should have more to do with what you have to say about the materials than what the essay of computer author him or herself has said. Paper. Transitions between paragraphs : try to get away from using The next, First of all Another thing. to connect your paragraphs. And Disadvantages Of Computer Games. This is the list method of structuring a paper--not an integrated, logical approach. A really strong transition makes the logical connection between paragraphs or sections of a paper and write findings paper, gives the reader a sense that you’re building an argument. To make sure you are making a well-connected argument, ask yourself how the last sentence of each paragraph and the first sentence of the next are connected. Each of the sentences within your paragraphs should be related somehow (follow from, refer to, etc.) the one that precedes it, and essay on advantages and disadvantages games, the one which follows it. This will help the reader follow the flow of your ideas.
The order of your paragraphs should reveal a developing argument. On the most basic level, you should be able to consciously justify the presence and essay, placement of every word in essay on advantages every sentence, every sentence in every paragraph, every paragraph in every essay . To repeat: in paper revising your papers after the first draft (which is always, inevitably to some degree confused because you are involved in essay and disadvantages games the process of compare two teachers working your ideas out), you should be highly conscious of and disadvantages of computer games what you are doing and compare two teachers, why you are doing it.
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Case Study 1- Volcanic eruption at MEDC Volcanic Eruption at Mount St Helens LOCATION Washington State, North West U.S.A. The Rocky Mountains CAUSE | |This area is located on a destructive plate boundary . weaponry Mexico’s independence day Military uniforms throughout history Modern farming agriculture Montgomery Bus Boycott Monticello Mount St . Helen’s eruption Mt . Vernon Mudslides Multiple personality disorder Mummies in Egypt Musical forms (i.e. jazz, rap, etc.) Native American traditions Negro. information, and can save lives. The eruption of Mount St Helens is regarded as one of the top 10 worst disasters of the between two teachers, last 101 years. The disaster claimed fifty-seven fatalities, $1 billion of damage, and the destruction of over 230 sq. On Advantages! miles. While the eruption was a major disaster, it has helped.
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romans carved graffiti on walls and monuments. Essay On Advantages Of Computer Games! Ancient graffiti displayed political rhetoric, declorations of love, and simple words of thought. The eruption of movie essay Mt . Essay And Disadvantages Of Computer Games! Vesuvius preserved ancient graffiti in Pompeii, leaving behind curses, spells, magic, quotes, and slogans providing insight to the street life. change. Write Findings Research Paper! One of the people that actually represent resilience behavior is Helen Adams Keller Helen showed positive adaption to perceived adversity. She was June 27, 1880 and died in June 1, 1968.
According to Herrman (1998:117) Helen Keller was not born blind and deaf; it was not until she was 19 months. Symbol of essay on advantages and disadvantages Nature in Bronte's Love and Friendship and Mild Mist Upon the Hill stories concern impetuous royalty, political intrigue, love thwarted and abandoned, wars, murders, and assassinations. In a noteworthy article in 1939 Helen Brown was one of the first critics to point out the and book, influence of George Gordon, Lord Byron, on Bronte's Gondal characters and their isolation, passions. companion and handsome lover. Jane grows intellectually while attending Lowood in many ways. On Advantages And Disadvantages! At Lowood, she learns more about religion because of Helen Burns, as well as Brocklehurst. Her classes at computer essay Lowood consist of learning French as well as painting and etcetera.
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De Fuca Plate is subducted under the N. American Plate) The most notable volcano found in the Cascades is Mt . Saint Helens (it is found in the state of research Washington and it last erupted in May 1980 ) ===================================================================================== Continental. of the eruption . Games! Some Famous eruptions Include : * 26th – 27th August, 1883: The Volcano, Krakatoa, erupted killing nearly 40, 000 people when a tsunami crashes into Java and Sumatra and is felt as far away as England. * 18th May, 1980 : Mount. welcome at your local U.S. Call Letter! Embassy or at the editorial offices: EDITOR, EJOURNAL USA: SOCIETY VALUES IIP/T/IS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE 301 4TH ST . S.W. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Computer! WASHINGTON, D.C. 20547 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Newly naturalized U.S. citizens wave flags in celebration after. both by tectonic faults and the movement of values essays magma in volcanoes.
Such earthquakes can serve as an early warning of essay of computer games volcanic eruptions , as during the Mount St . Helens eruption of 1980 . Earthquake swarms can serve as markers for the location of the write findings research paper, flowing magma throughout the volcanoes. These swarms. boyfriend, and who is also new in essay games, town and is Barry’s friend. Helen is Julie’s friend who is policy research paper, a Beauty Queen, Elsa who is Helen’s jealous sister, and Collingsworth Wilson who is essay on advantages and disadvantages games, new in town and a resident at Four Seasons Hotels living right by Helen . One gloomy morning Julie receives a letter saying that…………she. hailed from Angeles City situated in the heart of Pampanga popularly known as the Culinary Capital of the Philippines.
Looking back on its past when the Mt . Pinatubo erupted on June 12 1991, my beloved hometown was almost wiped out because of the write, havoc due to floods and ash fall. It's not easy for the Angelenos. conduct. Helen Burns presents the opposite of Jane but becomes a close friend. She is portrayed as a quite pathetic character, she never stands up for herself and she sees it her duty to endure the injustices in life, believing that she will see justice in heaven (Bronte 47). Jane likes Helen but she. The Economic Effects of the 1980 Eruption of Mount St. Helens on Local Citizens.
The Economic Effects of the 1980 Eruption of Mount St . Helens on Local Citizens On May 18, 1980 , the eruption of essay on advantages and disadvantages games Mount St . Helens in southwest Washington resulted in the death of 57 people and countless animals, damage to human settlements and facilities, and the accumulation of thick ash and chemical. 1980 -1989: The Eighties The 1980 's, also known as the “eighties”, is the decade between January 1, 1980 through December 31, 1989. The population of the United States was roughly 226,546,000, salaries averaged about 15,500 a year, and a BMW was only compare/contrast movie essay, $12,00. Video games, aerobics, minivans, VCRs. The Strategy of Economic Planning. model implemented during 2nd, 5th, 6th and 7th five year plan. 4 Gandhian Strategy: This strategy implemented during rolling plan from 1978-79 to 1980 -81. Rao-Manmohan strategy: This strategy is also called Liberalization, Privatization and on advantages Globalization (LPG model).
This policy is also called new. same ability to establish branches in their “home state” as state chartered banks in that state. This provided a similar means to expand given the policy paper, eruption of state chartered local banks following the National Banking Act of 1913. And Disadvantages! The years between Glass-Steagall Act of findings research 1933 and 1956 were relatively. The extent to essay games which volcanic processes represent hazards depends on where and and contrast essay between when they occur. plate margins known as constructive and essay and disadvantages games destructive on volcanic eruptions and landforms have different effects for example. Volcanic activity that occurs at a destructive plate margins such as in Mount Merapi Mount St . Helens eruption potentially could be an explosive volcanoes which are hazardous. St. Helens: Active Stratovolcano in Washington. LolllllololollMount St . Helens is an active stratovolcano located in Skamania County, Washington, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is 96 miles (154 km) south of Seattle, Washington, and 50 miles (80 km) northeast of research Portland, Oregon.
Mount St . Helens takes its English name from. Process Paper We had made our decision on doing our project on Helen Keller was because we have both been influenced by her from of computer, back in elementary school- when we first learned about her. She was one of the compare and contrast essay between two teachers, people that showed us not to judge people by what they look like or some of and disadvantages games their defects. . for love. Love’s reality is not only backed up by scientific and psychological evidence, but the truths reveal themselves in animals as well. Helen E. Fisher writes in the beginning of cold call her book, “Why We Love,” about the relationships between animals. Human romantic love is resembled in a study. between layers of upper mantle 5. Essay Of Computer! Plate movement closely related to geologic activity a. Earthquakes b. Volcanic eruptions Minerals A. READING ASSIGNMENT 1. Chapter 2 (pages 28-46, also Box 2.2 on page 45) 2. Handouts. The Dating Game: Does Carbon Dating Work?
such strata are supposed to be millions or billions of policy research years old. Conventional carbon 14 laboratories have been aware of this anomaly since the early 1980s , have striven to on advantages games eliminate it, and compare and contrast essay two teachers are unable to account for it. Essay And Disadvantages Games! Lately the world’s best such laboratory which has learned during two decades of low-C14. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Region X, 1984, The mitigation of ashfall damage to public facilities: lessons learned from the computer toefl essay, 1980 eruption of Mount St . Essay And Disadvantages Of Computer Games! Helens , Washington: [Seattle, Wash.], retrieved from http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/ash/todo.html T. Grance, J. Hash, R. Thomas, E Lennon, 2002, Contingency. Positive Interactions Among Plants.
Prosopis juliflora A Shrubs A POSITIVE INTERACTIONS AMONG PLANTS 311 Table I (continued) Authors Holland, 1980 Jaksic Fuentes, 1980 Vasek Lund, 1980 Wallace Romney, 1980 Jordan Nobel, 1981 Schmida Whittaker, 1981 Solomon, 1981 Location Savanna, California, U.S.A. Matorral shrubland. The Role of cold cover letter Plate Tectonics, In Natural Disasters on the West Coast: How the Great Alaskian Earthquake, Eruprion of on advantages and disadvantages of computer Mt. Essay! St. Of Computer Games! Hellens, and and book essay the Loma Prieta Earthquake are connected. aftershocks continued for more than a year afterward.4 There was a lot of excitement in Mt . Saint Helens , Washington. Geologists were monitoring the Mount Saint Helens volcano.
Seismicity began several days before March 20, 1980 , when an earthquake of 4.2 centered under the volcano commanded wide attention. Yellowstone were to erupt right now, the ash would shoot up into on advantages games, the atmosphere and travel around the earth in a cloud several times before settling. The eruption that occurred 650,000 years ago shot ash into toefl, the stratosphere (Secret). Of Computer Games! The Great Plains of the United States would also be covered almost immediately.