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Developing a Thesis Statement from Your Speech Topic - Video
asian essays (from the Heath Anthology Newsletter ) Teaching Asian American Literature. University of Wisconsin-Madison. I find it useful to begin my Introduction to Asian American literature classes with a discussion of terminology. Speech? First, I deconstruct the term oriental, explaining that as a signifier of someone or something of thesis against abortion Asian origin it is no longer viable since it is speech thesis burdened with all the negative connotations of analysis inferiority, irrationality, and exoticism that Edward Said clearly delineated in his groundbreaking cultural history Orientalism. Speech Thesis? (NY: 1978) By contrast, the term Asian is a neutral geographical designation and therefore more acceptable. Next, I explore the rather fluid boundaries of the jail, terms Asian, American, and literature. Asia, as the world's largest continent, stretches from what used to be the U.S.S.R, west of the Ural Mountains, as far east as the thesis statement, Bering Strait, and as far south as the Indian Ocean; it is separated from Africa by the Suez Canal, includes all of the Middle East as well as the islands of the South Pacific. From Birmingham Jail Thesis? However, the thesis statement, boundaries of letter from birmingham jail Asia as employed by scholars of Asian American literature have been much more limited, focused primarily on writers of so-called East Asian origins. [East Asia is only east in thesis statement, relation to Europe, of course; from an American perspective, China, Japan, and Korea are the Near West.] Kai-yu Hsu and jail, Helen Palubinskas, editors of the first anthology in the field, Asian American Authors (1972) brought to light two generations of American writers from three Asian traditions: Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino, giving priority to American-born authors.
Frank Chin, Jeffery Paul Chan, Lawson Fusao Inada, and Shawn Wong, editors of Aiiieeeee!. An Anthology of Asian American Writers (1974) included the same three groups and selected on the basis of what they claimed to be an authentic but undefined Asian American sensibility. David Hsin-fu Wand, editor of another anthology Asian American Heritage (1974), extended the thesis, field to include Koreans, South Pacific islanders, and writers whose sensibilities had been formed in Asia. As South Asians and Southeast Asians are beginning to be recognized as writers, the boundary of Asian American literature is stretching. The term American has been defined by essay, Elaine Kim, author of the first book-length scholarly study, Asian American Literature: An Introduction to the Writings and Their Social Context (1982) as the requisite setting of an Asian American text. Writers of Asian ancestry living in the United States, like Richard Kim and Sook Nyul Choi, but writing books set in Asian countries would be excluded by her definition. This seems to me an unfortunate exclusion that cuts off important sources of history, culture and memory. Speech? Since Asia is an inherent part of an Asian American's past, whether distant or more immediate, it should be acknowledged.
Writers whose sensibilities were shaped in Asia, those who write of rubric essay American experiences in Asian languages or of Asian experiences in English have been designated immigrant or emigré writers, but should also be included under the speech, rubric Asian American. There is always a surplus of humanness, as Bakhtin says, ( Dialogic Imagination , 37) and several questions tease us as we try to put people into categories. Short Essay Dream? At what point does an immigrant become an thesis American? Should American citizenship be the sole criterion? Can't a lengthy residency Americanize an ready essays immigrant even if his/her citizenship has remained unchanged? Where do mixed-race people fit into these designations and how much Asian ancestry is necessary for the Asian American appellation? What about an author who is racially Asian and nationally American but who chooses not to statement, write of his/her own ethnicity? Is Asian American literature defined by the ethnicity of the author or by its subject matter? These questions seem answerable only on a case by case basis, depending on the scholar or critic tackling them. In brief, for me the ethnicity of an author should be Asian and the subject matter Asian or Asian American to essay, fit my definition of an Asian American text.
Finally, what is literature? By what criteria do we decide which texts are works of art and thesis, which are not? Feminists and ethnic scholars have been calling into to kill video question singular points of view that claim universality and putting in their stead alternate versions of history, of beauty and truth. We have begun to speech statement, ask whose criteria we are using for inclusion into the canon and for short essay on india of my what purposes. Speech Thesis? We are looking at autobiography, work songs, and diaries as literary texts worthy of study. We are urging everyone to admit to a perspective and to grant the validity of other perspectives. We are realizing that there are large gaps in history, many stories which have never before been heard by social, the populace at large, stories by those who are powerless, working class, and statement, peoples of color. Thus, Asian American literature has several purposes: to remember the past, to give voice to a hitherto silent people with an ignored and therefore unknown history, to correct stereotypes of an ready essays exotic or foreign experience and thus, as Hong Kingston says, to claim America for the thousands of Americans whose Asian faces too frequently deny them a legitimate place in speech statement, this country of rubric their birth.
This literature cannot be read without some grounding in thesis, the historical and cultural contexts of Asians in the United States. Nor can the book report video, term Asian American be understood as a monolithic unity, for it contains hosts of nationalities and languages, dozens of religions, and a multitude of races as originating sources. Though the Heath Anthology includes only ten Asian American authors out of several possible hundreds, it does present a chronological and a somewhat representative sample from a field growing in two directions as new writers become published and as scholars uncover writers of the speech statement, past. Edith Maud Eaton (Sui Sin Far) ( 2, 884-901) is short dream one of these discoveries. Speech? Like Harriet Jacobs, she has the distinction of letter from birmingham being a pioneer, the thesis statement, first Asian American writer of letter from thesis short fiction; her younger sister Winnifred Eaton (who used a Japanese pseudonym, Onoto Watanna, and is not included in the Anthology ) was the statement, first Asian American novelist. From? As contemporary reviewers wrote of Edith Eaton's work, Leaves from the Mental Portfolio of an thesis statement Eurasian, her autobiographical essay sounded a new note in American literature, spotlighting the between-worlds plight of Chinese Eurasians during a period of thesis statement abortion virulent sinophobia. Sinophobia, which extended to all Asians, remained strong for nearly a century from the completion of the transcontinental railroad in speech thesis, the 1870s until the immigration reform act of 1965, which ended discriminatory quotas favoring Europeans and equalized quotas worldwide. Consequently, much of the Asian immigrant experience has been a painful one.
Sui Sin Far's short story In the Land of the Free recounts the high cost paid in thesis against, anguish when unjust immigration restrictions are enforced without regard to human feelings. The events in thesis, the story emphasize the irony of its title, and the estrangement of the child from his mother at the story's end foreshadows his future assimilation into the dominant culture and the attendant loss of his motherland and mothertongue. The selection from Younghill Kang's autobiography East Goes West (2, 1747-1754), recounts the comic mishaps when a newly arrived Korean student of Shakespeare attempts the work of rhetorical analysis domestic servant in an American home, but the subtext exposes the speech, limited choices open to an Asian immigrant in a land which prides itself on being a haven for the persecuted and a land of opportunity. Still another subtextual layer is the feminization of alien young men who themselves express male chauvinist views of their own women at home. Analysis? Carved on the Walls: Poetry by Early Chinese Immigrants (2, 1755-1762) and Silence by Filipino-American Carlos Bulosan (2, 1840-1843) continue to iterate the speech statement, gulf between the rhetoric of America and the reality of living here.
Having saved for the passage across the Pacific Ocean, would-be Chinese immigrants dream of entering the Gold Mountain but find themselves imprisoned on ready essays an island, for speech weeks, months, even years, tantalizingly within sight of the buildings of San Francisco. Instead of golden opportunities, they sleep in three tiered bunks two hundred in a room and wait for thesis the interrogations which will determine their fate: permission to enter the U.S.A. Speech Thesis Statement? or an ignominious return to China. Or, like the protagonist in Bulosan's poignant story, they dream in jail thesis, lonely rooms of warm human contacts which evaporate like mist. In the latter half of this century, Asian American writing hasachieved new levels of maturity, artistry and emotional depth. Hisaye Yamamoto's beautifully achieved story Seventeen Syllables, (2, 1871-1882) written from the perspective of an adolescent and thus told obliquely, delineates the tensions in a Japanese American. family where each of the three family members' life trajectories lead them painfully in opposing directions. The traumatic Relocation experience, attendant upon Executive Order 9066 which uprooted 110,000 Japanese Americans from their west coast homes and sent them to live behind barbed wire in inland desert camps, has much of the writing from this group. Speech Statement? John Okada's No-No Boy (2, 1900-1912) traces the the psychological scars of the war at home in the efforts of a draft resister, Ichiro, to come to terms with his decision and good statement against, contrasts his tension-filled home with the love-filled family of Kenji, a Japanese American veteran who returns from thesis war with a gangrenous wound that continues to ready essays, take inches off his leg and eventually takes his life.
What price glory, the text seems to be asking, and what land is this where everyone seems to be filled with hatred for someone else? The work of Maxine Hong Kingston (2, 2094-2115) and Janice Mirikitani (2, 2501-2509) reflect the ramifications of the Civil Rights and Women's Liberation Movements of the 1960s and 1970s: affirmation and assertion of the self as an amalgam of the specificities of race, culture, gender and class. Kingston in The Woman Warrior finds a meaningful model in thesis, a classical Chinese heroine, Fa Mulan, the woman warrior, whose story she embroiders on, while Mirikitani gives voice to the unvoiced struggle of her parents to on india of my dream, survive in a hostile environment and to her silent daughter who denies she is speech thesis statement like her mother. Both writers speak of the gulfs of silence and incomprehension between generations of mothers and daughters, gulfs that cry out to be bridged. Rhetorical Essay? Finally, Garrett Hongo (2, 2550-2562) and Cathy Song (2, 2585-2593), two accomplished and acclaimed Hawaiian-born poets, through the use of striking, sensuous details render beautiful and extraordinary such everyday incidents as coming home from work, cooking, and bathing. Students who have had no previous contact with Asian Americans, who know only the model minority stories in the media and the distorted Hollywood images of orientals, are generally surprised to learn, after reading Asian American literature, that Asians are just people after all.
If they have come to this realization, as small a step as it may seem to some of us, they have made a giant leap towards greater understanding. And perhaps, one day, authors like Hong Kingston and English professors with Asian features in the United States will no longer be complimented on their good English but will be accepted without raised eyebrows as belonging here.
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Writing a Thesis Statement for a Speech: 5 Things to Consider
More Ideas Than You’ll Ever Use for Book Reports. Submitted by Teacher-2-Teacher contributor Kim Robb of Summerland, BC. Create life-sized models of two of your favorite characters and dress them as they are dressed in the book. Crouch down behind your character and describe yourself as the character. Tell what your role is in the book and how you relate to statement, the other character you have made. Letter From Thesis! Create a sculpture of a character. Use any combination of soap, wood, clay, sticks, wire, stones, old toy pieces, or any other object. An explanation of how this character fits into the book should accompany the sculpture. Interview a character from your book.
Write at speech thesis, least ten questions that will give the character the birmingham jail thesis, opportunity to discuss his/her thoughts and feelings about his/her role in the story. However you choose to present your interview is thesis statement up to you. Write a diary that one of the story’s main characters might have kept before, during, or after the book’s events. Remember that the character’s thoughts and feelings are very important in a diary. If you are reading the same book as one or more others are reading, dramatize a scene from the book. Write a script and good against have several rehearsals before presenting it to the class. Prepare an oral report of 5 minutes. Give a brief summary of the plot and speech statement describe the personality of one of the main characters.
Be prepared for questions from the class. Give a sales talk, pretending the students in the class are clerks in a bookstore and a mockingbird report video you want them to push this book. Speech! Build a miniature stage setting of a scene in the book. Include a written explanation of the scene. Make several sketches of some of the scenes in thesis statement abortion the book and label them. Describe the setting of speech thesis, a scene, and then do it in pantomime. Good Against! Construct puppets and present a show of one or more interesting parts of the book. Dress as one of the characters and act out thesis statement a characterization. Rubric Rhetorical Analysis Essay! Imagine that you are the author of the book you have just read. Suddenly the book becomes a best seller.
Write a letter to a movie producer trying to thesis, get that person interested in making your book into a movie. Explain why the story, characters, conflicts, etc., would make a good film. Suggest a filming location and the actors to play the various roles. YOU MAY ONLY USE BOOKS WHICH HAVE NOT ALREADY BEEN MADE INTO MOVIES. Write a book review as it would be done for to kill book report a newspaper. (Be sure you read a few before writing your own.) Construct a diorama (three-dimensional scene which includes models of people, buildings, plants, and animals) of one of the main events of the statement, book. Include a written description of the scene. Statement Against! Write a feature article (with a headline) that tells the story of the book as it might be found on the front page of a newspaper in the town where the statement, story takes place. Letter Jail! Write a letter (10-sentence minimum) to the main character of speech thesis statement, your book asking questions, protesting a situation, and/or making a complaint and/or a suggestion. This must be done in the correct letter format. Read the same book as one of your friends.
The two of social essay, you make a video or do a live performance of statement, MASTERPIECE BOOK REVIEW, a program which reviews books and interviews authors. (You can even have audience participation!) If the story of your book takes place in another country, prepare a travel brochure using pictures you have found or drawn. Write a FULL (physical, emotional, relational) description of three of the characters in the book. Draw a portrait to accompany each description. After reading a book of history or historical fiction, make an illustrated timeline showing events of the story and draw a map showing the location(s) where the story took place. Read two books on the same subject and compare and contrast them. Read a book that has been made into a movie. (Caution: it must hve been a book FIRST. Books written from screenplays are not acceptable.) Write an essay comparing the rhetorical, movie version with the thesis, book. Create a mini-comic book relating a chapter of the ready essays, book. Speech Statement! Make three posters about the essay on india of my dream, book using two or more of the following media: paint, crayons, chalk, paper, ink, real materials. Design costumes for thesis dolls and dress them as characters from the book.
Explain who these characters are and how they fit in the story. Write and perform an original song that tells the story of the book. After reading a book of a mockingbird book report, poetry, do three of the following: 1) do an oral reading; 2)write an original poem; 3)act out a poem; 4)display a set of pictures which describe the poem; 5)write original music for the poem; 6)add original verses to the poem. Thesis! Be a TV or radio reporter, and give a report of letter birmingham jail thesis, a scene from the speech, book as if it is happening live. Design a book jacket for the book. I STRONGLY suggest that you look at an actual book jacket before you attempt this. Create a newspaper for social your book. Summarize the plot in one article, cover the weather in another, do a feature story on one of the more interesting characters in another. Thesis! Include an editorial and to kill video a collection of ads that would be pertinent to the story. Do a collage/poster showing pictures or 3-d items that related to the book, and then write a sentence or two beside each one to show its significance. Do a book talk.
Talk to the class about speech, your book by saying a little about the author, explain who the characters are and explain enough about the good abortion, beginning of the story so that everyone will understand what they are about to read. Finally, read an exciting, interesting, or amusing passage from your book. Stop reading at speech thesis statement, a moment that leaves the audience hanging and add If you want to know more you’ll have to rhetorical analysis essay, read the book. If the statement, book talk is birmingham thesis well done almost all the students want to read the thesis, book. Construct puppets and good against abortion present a show of one or more interesting parts of the book. Make a book jacket for the book or story. Draw a comic strip of your favourite scene.
Make a model of something in the story. Use magazine photos to make a collage about the story Make a mobile about the story. Make a mini-book about the story. Practice and the read to the class a favourite part. Retell the thesis, story in your own words to the class. Write about what you learned from the story. Short Essay On India! Write a different ending for your story.
Write a different beginning. Thesis Statement! Write a letter to letter from jail, a character in the book. Write a letter to the author of the book. Make a community journal. Write Graffiti about the book on a brick wall (your teacher can make a brick-like master and then run this off on red construction paper.) Cut your words out of construction paper and glue them on the wall. Compare and speech thesis contrast two characters in social essay the story. Free write your thoughts, emotional reaction to the events or people in the book.
Sketch a favourite part of the thesis statement, book–don’t copy an already existing illustration. Make a time line of all the events in analysis the book. Make a flow chart of all the events in the book. Show the events as a cycle. Make a message board.
Make a map of where the events in speech statement the book take place. Compare and contrast this book to birmingham jail thesis, another. Do character mapping, showing how characters reacted to events and changed. Make a list of thesis statement, character traits each person has. Make a graphic representation of an event or character in the story. Make a Venn diagram of the people, events or settings in your story. Make an action wheel. Write a diary that one of the story’s main characters might have kept before, during, or after the book’s events. Rubric! Remember that the thesis statement, character’s thoughts and feelings are very important in a diary. A Mockingbird Report! Build a miniature stage setting of a scene in the book. Thesis Statement! Include a written explanation of the rubric analysis, scene.
Make a poster advertising your book so someone else will want to thesis, read it. Keep and open mind journal in three or four places in your story. Write a feature article (with a headline) that tells the story of the book as it might be found on social essay, the front page of a newspaper in speech statement the town where the story takes place. Make a newspaper about the book, with all a newspaper’s parts–comics, ads, weather, letter to the editor,etc. Interview a character. Write at short dream, least ten questions that will give the character the opportunity to discuss his/her thoughts and feelings about his/her role in the story. However you choose to present your interview is speech thesis up to you. Make a cutout of one of the characters and write about them in the parts.
Write a book review as it would be done for a mockingbird report a newspaper. ( Be sure you read a few before writing your own.) Make a character tree, where one side is event, symmetrical side is speech emotion or growth. Choose a quote from a character. Write why it would or wouldn’t be a good motto by essay on india dream which to live your life Learn something about the environment in which the book takes place Tell 5 things you leaned while reading the book Retell part of the story from a different point of view Choose one part of the story that reached a climax. If something different had happened then, how would it have affected the outcome? Make a Venn diagram on the ways you are like and unlike one of the characters in speech thesis statement your story. Write about one of the character’s life twenty years from now. Write a letter from one of the characters to a beloved grandparent or friend Send a postcard from one of the characters. Draw a picture on to kill book, one side, write the thesis, message on the other. If you are reading the essay on india, same book as one or more others are reading, dramatize a scene from the book. Write a script and have several rehearsals before presenting it to the class. Make a Venn diagram comparing your environment to the setting in the book Plan a party for one or all of the characters involved Choose birthday gifts for one of the characters involved.
Tell why you chose them Draw a picture of the setting of the climax. Why did the author choose to have the action take place here? Make a travel brochure advertising the setting of the story. Choose five artifact from the thesis statement, book that best illustrate the happenings and meanings of the story. Tell why you chose each one. Stories are made up; on conflicts and solutions.
Choose three conflicts that take place in the story and give the solutions. Is there one that you wish had been handled differently? Pretend that you are going to join the letter from birmingham jail thesis, characters in the story. What things will you need to pack? Think carefully, for you will be there for a week, and there is no going back home to get something! Make up questions–have a competition. Write a letter (10-sentence minimum) to speech statement, the main character of your book asking questions, protesting a situation, and/or making a complaint and/or a suggestion. Retell the story as a whole class, writing down the thesis abortion, parts as they are told. Each child illustrates a part. Put on the wall.
Each child rewrites the story, and divides into 8 parts. Make this into a little book of 3 folded pages, stapled in statement the middle (Outside paper is for title of book.) Older children can put it on letter, the computer filling the unused part with a square for later illustrations. Outline the story, then use the speech thesis statement, outline to expand into ready essays paragraphs. Speech Thesis! Teacher chooses part of the to kill a mockingbird book report video, text and deletes some of the words. Students fill in the blanks. Make a chart of interesting words as a whole class activity. Categorize by parts of speech, colourful language, etc. After reading a book of history or historical fiction, make an thesis illustrated time line showing events of the story and draw a map showing the location(s) where the story took place. Make game boards (Chutes and short on india dream Ladders is a good pattern) by groups, using problems from the book as ways to get ahead or to thesis, be put back. Groups exchange boards, then play.
Create life-sized models of two of your favourite characters and dress them as they are dressed in the book. Crouch down behind your character and describe yourself as the character. Tell what your role is in the book and how you relate to the other character you have made. Analysis! Create a sculpture of thesis, a character. Use any combination of soap, wood, clay, sticks, wire, stones, old toy pieces, or any other object.
An explanation of how this character fits into the book should accompany the essay, sculpture. Make several sketches of some of the scenes in the book and label them. Describe the setting of thesis, a scene, and to kill a mockingbird then do it in speech thesis statement pantomime. Dress as one of the characters and act out a characterization. Imagine that you are the author of the letter from birmingham thesis, book you have just read. Suddenly the book becomes a best seller.
Write a letter to a movie producer trying to get that person interested in making your book into a movie. Explain why the story, characters, conflicts, etc., would make a good film. Suggest a filming location and the actors to play the speech, various roles. YOU MAY ONLY USE BOOKS WHICH HAVE NOT ALREADY BEEN MADE INTO MOVIES. Construct a diorama (three-dimensional scene which includes models of people, buildings, plants, and animals) of one of the main events of the book. Include a written description of the scene. Read the same book as one of your friends. The two of you make a video or do a live performance of MASTERPIECE BOOK REVIEW, a program which reviews books and interviews authors. (You can even have audience participation!) If the story of your book takes place in another country, prepare a travel brochure using pictures you have found or drawn. Write a FULL (physical, emotional, relational) description of three of the characters in the book. Draw a portrait to birmingham jail, accompany each description. Read two books on the same subject and compare and contrast them.
Read a book that has been made into a movie. (Caution: it must have been a book FIRST. Books written from screenplays are not acceptable.) Write an essay comparing the movie version with the book. Make three posters about the book using two or more of the following media: paint, crayons, chalk, paper, ink, real materials. Design costumes for dolls and dress them as characters from the book. Explain who these characters are and how they fit in the story. Write and perform an original song that tells the story of the speech, book. After reading a book of ready essays, poetry, do three of the following: 1) do an oral reading; 2)write an original poem; 3)act out a poem; 4)display a set of pictures which describe the poem; 5)write original music for the poem; 6)add original verses to the poem. Be a TV or radio reporter, and give a report of a scene from the book as if it is happening live. Write a one sentence summary of each chapter and illustrate the speech statement, sentence.
Mark a bookmark for the book, drawing a character on the front, giving a brief summary of the book on back after listing the title and author. Write a multiple choice quiz of the from jail, book with at least ten questions. Speech Statement! Make a life-sized stand-up character of one of the people in the book. On the social essay, back list the characteristics of the person. Pretend you are making a movie of speech statement, your book and are casting it. Choose the actors and actresses from people in the classroom. Tell what you think the book report video, main character in the book would like for statement a Christmas present and tell why. Add a new character and explain what you would have him/her do in the story.
Do some research on a topic brought up; in ready essays your book. Write an obituary for one of the characters. Be sure to include life-time accomplishments. Choose a job for one of the speech thesis, characters in the book and write letter of application. You must give up your favourite pet (whom you love very much) to social, one of the characters in the book. Which character would you choose? Why?
Invite one of the characters to dinner, and plan an imaginary conversation with the person who will fix the meal. What will you serve, and why? Write an ad for a dating service for one of the characters. Nominate one of the characters for an office in local, state or national government. Which office should they run for? What are the qualities that would make them be good for that office? Pretend that you can spend a day with one of the statement, characters.
Which character would you choose? Why? What would you do? Write a scene that has been lost from the book. Write the plot for a sequel to this book. Add another character to the book. Why would he be put there? What part would he serve? Rewrite the story for younger children in picture book form. Write the plot of the social essay outline, story as if it were a story on the evening news Make a gravestone for one of the characters. What other story could have taken place at this same time and speech setting?
Write the to kill report, plot and about 4 or 5 characters in this new book. Give an oral summary of the book. Give a written summary of the book. Tell about the most interesting part of the book. Write about the most interesting part of the speech statement, book.
Tell about the most important part of the book. Ready Essays! Write about the most interesting part of the book. Read the interesting parts aloud. Thesis! Write about ready essays, a character you liked or disliked. Write a dramatization of a certain episode.
Demonstrate something you learned. Make a peep box of the most important part. Paint a mural of the story or parts of it. Paint a watercolor picture. Make a book jacket with an inside summary. Make a scale model of an important object. Speech! Draw a clock to show the time when an birmingham important event happened and thesis write about it.
Write another ending for the story. Make up a lost or found ad for a person or object in the story. Make up a picture story of the most important part. To Kill Video! Draw a picture story of the most important part. Compare this book with another you have read on a similar subject. Write a movie script of the story. Speech Thesis Statement! Gather a collection of objects described in the book.
Draw or paint pictures of the main characters. Make a list of words and definitions important to the story. Make a 3-D scene. Create a puppet show. Make a poster to advertise the essay outline, book. Give a pantomime of an important part.
Use a map or time-line to show routes or times. Make a map showing where the story took place. Tell about the author or illustrator. Speech Thesis! Make a flannel board story. Make a mobile using a coat hanger. To Kill A Mockingbird! Give a chalk talk about the book. Do a science experiment associated with the reading. Tape record a summary and play it back for the class. Make a diorama. Make a seed mosaic picture.
Make a scroll picture. Do a soap carving of a character or animal from the story. Make a balsa wood carving of a character or animal from the story. Make stand-up characters. Make a poem about the story. Write a book review. Books about how to do something- classroom demonstration – the directions can be read aloud. Write the pros and cons (opinion) of a book after careful study.
If a travel book is read- illustrate a Travel Poster as to why one should visit this place. A vivid oral or written description of an interesting character. Mark beautiful descriptive passages or interesting conversational passages. Tell a story with a musical accompaniment. Make a list of new and unusual words and expressions.
A pantomime acted out for a guessing game. Write a letter to a friend about the book. Check each other by writing questions that readers of the same book should be able to answer. Thesis Statement! Make a time-line for a historical book. Broadcast a book review over the schools PA system. Research and tell a brief biography about the author. Make models of things read about in the book.
Make a colorful mural depicting the outline, book. A picture or caption about laughter for humorous books. Compare one book with a similar book. Think of a new adventure for the main character. Write a script for an interview with the main character. Retell the story to speech, a younger grade. Ready Essays! Choral reading with poetry. Adding original stanzas to poetry. Identify the parts in speech statement the story that show a character has changed his attitudes or ways of behavior. Sentences or paragraphs which show traits or emotions of the main character.
Parts of the story which compare the actions of to kill book, two or more characters. A part that describes a person, place or thing. A part of the story that you think could not have really happened. A part that proves a personal opinion that you hold. A part which you believe is the climax of the story. Speech Thesis! The conversation between two characters.
Pretend you are the main character and retell the story. Work with a small group of students. Plan for one to ready essays, read orally while the others pantomime the action. Write a letter to one of the characters. Write a biographical sketch of one character. Fill in what you don’t find in the text using your own imagination. Write an account of what you would have done had you been one of the characters. Speech Thesis! Construct a miniature stage setting for part of a story – use a small cardboard box. Children enjoy preparing a monologue from good statement abortion a story. Marking particularly descriptive passages for oral reading gives the reader and his audience an opportunity to appreciate excellent writing, and gives them a chance to improve their imagery and speech thesis statement enlarge their vocabulary.
The child who likes to statement, make lists of new unusual and interesting words and speech thesis expressions to add to his vocabulary might share such a list with others, using them in good abortion the context of the story. Giving a synopsis of a story is an thesis statement excellent way of gaining experience in arranging events in sequences and learning how a story progresses to a climax. Using information in a book to make a scrapbook about the subject. A puppet show planned to illustrate the story. Children reading the same book can make up a set of ready essays, questions about the book and then test each other. Biographies can come alive if someone acts as a news reporter and interviews the person. Preparing a book review to statement, present to a class at a lower level is an good statement against abortion excellent experience in story- telling and gives children an thesis understanding of how real authors must work to prepare books for children. Have the students do an author study and read several books by letter jail the same author and then compare. Cutting a piece of paper in the form of a large thumbnail and placing it on the bulletin board with the caption Thumbnail Sketches and letting the children put up drawings about the speech thesis, books they’ve read.
Stretch a cord captioned A Line of Good Books between two dowel sticks from letter from thesis which is hung paper illustrated with materials about various books. Clay, soap, wood, plaster, or some other kind of speech statement, modeling media is purposeful when it is used to make an illustration of a book. Constructing on a sand table or diorama, using creatively any materials to represent a scene from the story, can be an individual project or one for a group. A bulletin board with a caption about birmingham jail thesis, laughter or a picture of someone laughing at excerpts from speech thesis statement funny stories rewritten by the children from material in humorous books. Visiting the children’s room at the public library and telling the to kill a mockingbird book report, librarian in person about the kinds of books the children would like to speech thesis statement, have in the library. Video tape oral book reports and then have the children take turns taking the video home for all to share. Ready Essays! Write to the author of the book telling him/her what you liked about the book. Be Book Report Pen Pals and share book reports with children in speech thesis another school.
Do a costumed presentation of outline, your book. Dress either as the author or one of the speech, characters. Write a letter from one character to another character. Write the first paragraph (or two) for a sequel. Outline what would happen in the rest of book.
Write a new conclusion. Write a new beginning. If a journey was involved, draw a map with explanatory notes of on india of my, significant places. Speech Statement! Make a diorama and explain what it shows. Make a diorama showing the setting or a main event from the book. Make a new jacket with an original blurb. Use e-mail to tell a reading pen pal about the book. Participate with three or four classmates in a television talk show about the book. With another student, do a pretend interview with the rhetorical analysis, author or with one of the characters. Speech Statement! Cut out magazine pictures to make a collage or a poster illustrating the idea of the book. With two or three other students, do a readers’ theatre presentation or act out a scene from the book.
Lead a small group discussion with other readers of the same book. Focus on a specific topic and report your group’s conclusion to dream, the class. Speech Thesis Statement! Keep a reading journal and record your thoughts at the end of each period of reading. Write a book review for a class publication. Find a song or a poem that relates to the theme of your book. Explain the similarities. For fun, exaggerate either characteristics or events and write a tabloid-style news story related to your book. Draw a comic-book page complete with bubble-style conversations showing an incident in your book. Use a journalistic style and write a news story about something that happened to one of the characters. Write a paragraph telling about the title. Is it appropriate?
Why? Why not? Decide on rubric analysis, an alternate title for speech thesis statement the book. Why is it appropriate? Is it better than the one the book has now? Why or Why not? Make a poster advertising your book. A Mockingbird Book Report Video! Make a travel brochure inviting tourists to visit the thesis statement, setting of the book.
What types of activities would there be for them to attend? Write a letter to the main character of the short of my dream, book. Write a letter to the main character of the book. Write the thesis, letter he or she sends back. Make three or more puppets of the characters in the book. Prepare a short puppet show to essay on india of my dream, tell the story to the class. Write a description of one of the speech, main characters. Draw or cut out a picture to accompany the description. Make an ID card which belongs to one of the characters. Be sure to make the card look like the cards for that particular state. Include a picture and all information found on and ID card.
Don’t forget the signature!! ******This gets them researching what ID cards /Driver’s Licenses look like; as well as thinking about the character–especially the signature. From Birmingham Jail Thesis! I have seen kids ask each of the other students to sign the character’s name to find the thesis statement, one that would most likely belong to short on india of my, the character.******** Prepare a list of 15 to 20 questions for use in determining if other people have read the book carefully. Must include some thought questions. How? Why Dress up as one of the characters and thesis statement tell the story from a first person point of view.
Rewrite the story as a picture book. Use simple vocabulary so that it may be enjoyed by younger students. Write a diary as the main character would write it to explain the rubric rhetorical, events of the story. Must have at least 5 entries. Make a map showing where the story took place. Make a dictionary containing 20 or more difficult words from the statement, book. Social! Describe the problem or conflict existing for the main character in the book. Tell how the speech thesis, conflict was or was not resolved.
Make a mobile showing pictures or symbols of happenings in the book. Make a collage representing some event or part of short essay, your book. Make a crossword puzzle using ideas from a book. Need at least 25 entries. Choose any topic from thesis statement your book and ready essays write a 1-2 page research report on it. Include a one paragraph explanation as to how it applies to thesis statement, your book (not in the paper itself–on your title page.) Design and make the front page of a newspaper from the to kill book video, material in the book. Write a song for your story. (extra marks if presented in thesis statement class) Write a poem (or poems) about letter from thesis, your story. Pretend you are a teacher, preparing to teach your novel to the entire class. Create 5 journal prompts. Make a comic strip of your story.
Make a display of the time period of speech thesis statement, your book. Make a banner of cloth or paper about your book. Create a movie announcement for your book. Create a radio ad for your book. Write out the script and tape record it as it would be presented. Letter Thesis! Don’t forget background music! Make a wanted poster for one of the characters or objects in your book.
Include the following: (a) a drawing or cut out picture of the character or object, (b) a physical description of the character or object, (c) the thesis statement, character’s or object’s misdeeds (or deeds?), (d) other information about the character or object which is important, (e) the essay on india dream, reward offered for the capture of the character or object. Research and write a 1 page report on the geographical setting of your story. Include an explanation as to why this setting was important to the effect of the story. Design an advertising campaign to thesis statement, promote the sale of the letter thesis, book you read. Include each of the following: a poster, a radio or TV commercial, a magazine or newspaper ad, a bumper sticker, and speech thesis a button. Find the top 10 web sites a character in from birmingham jail thesis your book would most frequently visit. Include 2-3 sentences for each on why your character likes each of the sites. Write a scene that could have happened in the book you read but didn’t.
After you have written the scene, explain how it would have changed the outcome of the speech statement, book. Create a board game based on short of my, events and characters in the book you read. Speech Thesis Statement! By playing your game, members of the class should learn what happened in the book. Your game must include the following: a game board, a rule sheet and clear directions, events and characters from the story. Make models of three objects which were important in the book you read. On a card attached to each model, tell why that object was important in the book. Design a movie poster for the book you read. Cast the major character in the book with real actors and actresses. Include a scene or dialogue from the from thesis, book in the layout of the poster.
Remember, it should be PERSUASIVE; you want people to come see the speech thesis, movie. If the book you read involves a number of locations within a country or geographical area, plot the events of the story on a map. Make sure the map is large enough for us to read the main events clearly. Attach a legend to your map. Ready Essays! Write a paragraph that explains the importance of each event indicated on the your map.
Complete a series of five drawings that show five of the major events in the plot of the book you read. Write captions for each drawing so that the illustrations can be understood by someone who did not read the book. Make a test for the book you read. Speech Thesis Statement! Include 10 true-false, 10 multiple choice, and 10 short essay questions. After writing the test, provide the answers for your questions. Select one character from the book you read who has the qualities of a heroine or hero. List these qualities and tell why you think they are heroic. Imagine that you are about to make a feature-length film of the novel you read.
You have been instructed to select your cast from members of social, your English class. Thesis Statement! Cast all the major characters in your novel from your English classmates and tell why you selected each person for a given part. Plan a party for the characters in the book you read. In order to do this, complete each of the following tasks: (a) Design an invitation to the party which would appeal to video, all of the characters. (b) Imagine that you are five of the characters in the book and tell what each would wear to the party. (c) Tell what food you would serve and why. (d) Tell what games or entertainment you will provide and why your choices are appropriate. (e) Tell how three of the characters will act at statement, the party. (f) What kind of a party is this? (birthday, housewarming, un-birthday, anniversary, etc.) List five of the main characters from the book you read. Give three examples of what each character learned or did not learn in the book. Obtain a job application from an employer in our area, and fill out the application as one of the characters in the book you read might do. Before you obtain the application, be sure that the job is one for which a character in your book is qualified. If a resume is required, write it. Short Essay Dream! You are a prosecuting attorney putting one of the speech thesis statement, characters from the book you read on trial for a crime or misdeed.
Prepare your case on paper, giving all your arguments. Do the previous activity, but find a buddy to help you. One of you becomes the birmingham jail, prosecuting attorney; the thesis statement, other is the defense. If you can’t find a buddy, you could try it on your own. Make a shoe box diorama of a scene from the book you read. Write a paragraph explaining the scene and its effect in the book on your title page.
Pretend that you are one of the characters in the book you read. Tape a monologue of that character telling of his or her experiences. Be sure to write out a script before taping. You could perform this live if you so choose. Make a television box show of ten scenes in the order that they occur in short essay on india of my dream the book you read. Cut a square form the bottom of a box to serve as a TV screen and thesis statement make two slits in opposite sides of the to kill book, box. Slide a butcher roll on which you have drawn the scenes through the two side slits. Make a tape to go with your television show. Be sure to speech thesis statement, write out a script before taping or performing live. Tape an interview with one of the characters in the book you read.
Pretend that this character is being interviewed by a magazine or newspaper reporter. You may do this project with a partner, but be sure to write a script before taping. Rubric Analysis! You may choose to do a live version of this. Write a letter to speech thesis statement, a friend about the book you read. Explain why you liked or did not like the social essay, book. Speech Thesis! In The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield describes a good book as one that when you’re done reading it, you wish the author that wrote it was a terrific friend of yours and you could call him up on the phone whenever you felt like it. Imagine that the author of the book you read is a terrific friend of yours.
Write out an imaginary telephone conversation between the two of you in which you discuss the book you read and other things as well. Outline! Imagine that you have been given the task of conducting a tour of the town in which the book you read is set. Thesis! Make a tape describing the homes of your characters and the places where important events in the book took place. You may want to short, use a musical background for your tape. Do some research on the hometown of your book’s author. You may be able to find descriptions of his or her home, school, favorite hangouts, etc.
What else is of interest in the town? Imagine that you are conducting a tour of the statement, town. Make a tape describing the places you show people on the tour. You may want to use a musical background for to kill a mockingbird book report your tape. Make a list of at least ten proverbs or familiar sayings. Now decide which characters in speech thesis the book you read should have followed the suggestions in the familiar sayings and why. Write the copy for a newspaper front page that is devoted entirely to the book you read. The front page should look as much like a real newspaper page as possible. The articles on the front page should be based on events and characters in the book. Make a collage that represents major characters and events in the book you read. Use pictures and words cut from magazines in your collage.
Make a time line of the major events in the book you read. Ready Essays! Be sure the divisions on the time line reflect the time period in speech thesis statement the plot. Use drawings or magazine cutouts to illustrate events along the time line. You could present this to the class, taking us through time–event be event, for more marks. Change the setting of the book you read. Tell how this change of setting would alter events and letter jail affect characters. Make a paper doll likeness of one of the speech statement, characters in the book you read. Design at least threes costumes for rubric rhetorical analysis essay this character. Next, write a paragraph commenting on speech statement, each outfit; tell what the clothing reflects about the character, the historical period and events in the book. Pick a national issue.
Compose a speech to be given on that topic by one of the major characters in the book you read. Be sure the contents of the speech reflect the characters personality and beliefs. Retell the plot of the book you read as it might appear in rubric rhetorical analysis a third-grade reading book. Be sure that the vocabulary you use is appropriate for that age group. Tape your storytelling. Statement! Complete each of these eight ideas with material growing out of the book you read: This book made me wish that…, realize that…, decide that…, wonder about…, see that…, believe that …, feel that…, and book report hope that… After reading a non-fiction book, become a teacher. Prepare a lesson that will teach something you learned from the speech thesis statement, book. It could be a how-to lesson or one on content. Outline! Plan carefully to present all necessary information in a logical order.
You don’t want to confuse your students! Present your lesson to your students. How did you do? If you taught a how-to lesson, look at speech, the final product to see if your instructions to the class were clear. If your lesson introduced something new, you might give a short quiz to see how well you taught the lesson. Look through magazines for words and pictures that describe your book. Use these to short, create a collage on a bookmark. Make the speech thesis, bookmark available for others to use as they read the same book. Essay On India Of My Dream! Write the title of your book. Decide on some simple word–picture–letter combinations that will spell out the title rebus style. Present it to the class to solve (I will make a transparency or copies for you.) After they have solved the rebus., invite them to speech thesis, ask questions about the book.
After reading a book, design a game, based on that book as its theme. To Kill Book! Will you decide on a board game, card game, concentration? The choices are only limited to YOUR CREATIVITY! Be sure to include clear directions and provide everything needed to play. Choose an interesting character from your book. Consider the speech thesis, character’s personality, likes and dislikes. Decide on a gift for him or her… something he or she would really like and use. Good Thesis Statement Against! Design a greeting card to go along with your gift.
In the greeting, explain to your friend from the thesis statement, book why you selected the gift. Design a poster to advertise your book. Be creative…use detail…elaborate…use color! Can you make it 3-D or movable? Make a large poster that could be a cover for that book. Imagine that you are the book and plan a way to introduce yourself.
Make the group feel they would like to know you better. Organize your best points into from birmingham jail an introduction to speech thesis statement, present to the class. Be sure to wear your cover! Read the short of my, classifieds. Find something a character in your book was looking for or would like. Cut out the classified. Write a short paragraph telling why he or she needs/wants the item. Would the one advertised be a good buy for him or her?
Why or Why not? Create cutout sketches of each character in your novel. Mount the sketches on a bulletin board. Include a brief character sketch telling us about the characters. Design a symbol for a novel or a certain character.
Gather a large collection of current events that reflect incidents that closely parallel those in your novel. Write a letter to the author of your novel and explain how you feel about the book. Prepare and present an oral interpretation to thesis statement, the class. Create a poster that could be used as an advertisement. Do a five minute book talk. 18 Responses to “More Ideas Than You’ll Ever Use for Book Reports” Great ideas, but many in the lower half are repeating the first half of the list. We’ll take a look at editing out some obvious duplicates.
There’s no sense in making such a long list even more cumbersome to essay, digest. I remembered there being subtle but noteworthy differences on some of those ideas deemed “similar,” but please note that this was a reader contribution. Feel free to send in or comment with your own suggestions. Thank you for the feedback! HOW AM I GONNA PICK ONE! I go to Ockerman as well(; I’m in 7th grade and i had Mrs. Raider last year. I Love you Mrs. Raider and speech Mrs. Moore(: 3. xD.
hey Mrs.Body thank you for the suggestions and opportunities to show my creative and artistic skills. You can also put jeopardy or make a short movie trailer of the book like it is just about to come in theaters. Also you can do a news broadcast of a seen that is happening in the book. I also think that you can put an a mockingbird book video idea of having to do a short song or rap of what is happening in your book. woah that is a huge list. i might do either 14 or 64! I really like these ideas.
They gave me a 120% on my final grade! I know get to speech statement, graduate. Thanks BOB! This is an amazing list! I don’t know which idea to choose! Act out the essay outline, entire book in speech thesis a two hour movie! That is such a good idea.
AWESOME BIG FAT A+ I love this site. How can we pick one if there is over rhetorical analysis essay 300 of speech thesis statement, them. You could also do a short book about the book. Sometime you must HURT in order to KNOW. FALL in order to abortion, GROW. LOSE in order to statement, GAIN. Because life’s greatest lessons.
are learned through PAIN. Thank you this is very helpful. Yeah ! I like those ideas these are helping for last three years … Three books three years three new ideas thee A’s.
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drawing essays Figure 1. Donald Judd, Untitled , 1967. Graphite on paper, 10 3/4 x 13 1/4 inches (27.3 x 33.7 cm) Art © Estate of Donald Judd/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. System, Seriality, and the Handmade Mark in Minimal and Conceptual Art.
The exhibition Notations: Contemporary Drawing as Idea and Process presents drawings produced by seminal American artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, as well as a selection of works by artists of subsequent generations who continue to engage with the aesthetic strategies and procedures of speech thesis their predecessors. 1 In some cases the ready essays drawings on view are self-contained and statement, autonomous, but often they are studies for how to proceed to book report make a sculpture, an installation, or a site-specific work. The grid, the diagram, and serial ordering (all methods of de-skilling or noncomposition) are regularly employed as foils to subjective decision making. Yet the examination of a broad array of drawings by these practitioners reveals distinctive bodies of work that, far from being impersonal or uniform, are as diverse as the artists are innovative. Thesis? While some artists tended to foreground thought and good statement abortion, knowledge as the essential components of an artwork, others focused on the materials themselves with an equal degree of thesis concentration.
In both instances the visual and physical allure of their drawings is no less important than the ideas that they convey. Central to the exhibition is the paradoxical compatibility between the use of a priori systems and the individual touch of the artist in an artistic environment that embraced an antiemotive “serial attitude” as something akin to an ethos. 2 Much has been made of the purported purging of authorial intentionality and subjectivity in Minimal and Conceptual art, which placed a heightened emphasis on analytic rigor, systematic planning, and serial methodologies. This move is often characterized as a “cool” reaction to the “hot” psychologically transparent practices and rhetoric of heroic individualism associated with modernist abstraction in the United States in the post–World War II era. 3 The purported shift from hot to cool—from gestural disclosure to rational, antiauthorial approaches—was, however, never definitive or clear-cut. Drawing, a medium long associated with both the activity of short essay on india of my dream ideation and the manual act of creation, played a central role in attempts by speech, artists associated with the process-based and conceptually rigorous practices of Minimal and ready essays, Conceptual art to open up established understandings of speech thesis aesthetic production as well as a generative site for the ongoing negotiation of the relationship between subjective and objective approaches, between touch and measured distance. Drawing thus offers a compelling means through which to reexamine the received narrative of the essay outline art of this period. Artists engaged in statement a variety of strategies and agendas—including Dan Flavin, Eva Hesse, Barry Le Va, and Sol LeWitt—readily embraced drawing’s salient attributes—its mobility and video, elasticity, its economy and speech thesis, antimonumental character, its exploratory nature, and its facility for acting as a mediator, translating abstract concepts into form—to produce works that are notational, diagrammatic, and reductive. A Mockingbird Book Video? Often small in speech thesis scale, delicate, playful, and ready essays, highly nuanced, these drawings suggest a level of intimacy and speech thesis statement, direct encounter with the artists’ thoughts and intentions that is less readily apparent in their work in other mediums. Drawing is approached here as a powerful if underrecognized lens through which to explore the productive tensions between rational calculation and subjective expression, concept and material form, and precision and ready essays, disorder that animate much of the statement work on view in this exhibition. Industrial Fabrication / Individual Notation.
Employing basic forms, industrial materials, and essay outline, serial repetition, artists associated with Minimalism, such as Donald Judd and Dan Flavin, sought to free art from symbolic emotional content and statement, pretensions about its transcendent quality. While the established narrative of Minimalism emphasizes an ready essays obscuring, even an erasure, of the artist’s hand through the use of speech statement industrial fabrication and readymade materials, the preparatory and working drawings (necessities given that their art objects were fabricated industrially) produced by these artists reintroduce the hand into to kill video the movement’s legacy. 4 By revealing the idea of the system and the plan for construction, these drawings expose the process of creation and stand as vital counterpoints to thesis statement the sterile perfection of the standardized industrial Minimalist object. The “literalist” position held by Minimalism in the mid-1960s is exemplified by statement, the work of speech thesis statement Judd, whose 1965 essay “Specific Objects” set out the basic tenets of his approach: creating self-sufficient and self-referential objects based on material specificity. Using industrial materials such as Plexiglas, aluminum, and rolled steel rather than fine art materials, Judd placed his work in a continuum with the mass-produced commodity as opposed to from birmingham thesis the history of speech thesis statement sculpture. The artist employed drawing to work out structure, proportion, and spatial relationships for sculpture but never considered his works on paper as anything other than technical instructions, a type of to kill a mockingbird book report language used to convey information for the execution of standardized three-dimensional forms. Hand-drawn works providing dimensions and material specifications, such as his untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 1), paradoxically support his decidedly hands-off management style of delegation and thesis, supervision. Jail? 5. While Judd understood his working drawings as necessary supporting material for the creation of speech his serial sculptural works, drawing played a more essential role in the practice of his Minimalist contemporary Dan Flavin.
The artist drew incessantly and for a variety of purposes: to social essay notate an speech thesis idea or create working drawings for analysis artworks in other media; to make quick renderings of nature; to execute finished presentation drawings for sale; and to commission “final finished diagrams”—drawn in colored pencil on speech statement, graph paper by his wife, son, and studio assistants—which acted as records of his site-specific fluorescent light installations. 6 The act of drawing increased in importance once Flavin’s practice shifted, around 1963, to making works employing readymade fluorescent lamps bought from the hardware store and installed by technicians. Short Of My? He used commonplace materials (ballpoint pen, office paper) to sketch and document possible arrangements for thesis statement site-specific installations. Outline? Although he tended to downplay the graphic value of these drawings, they were essential to his practice, existing as residues of thought. Flavin was always careful to save and date each of these works on paper in order to record the sequence in speech thesis statement which they were made. Drawing thus became a way of projecting and planning situations and a means of archiving those plans, relating both to the future and to letter from jail thesis the past. 7. Figure 2. Dan Flavin, Four drawings for the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. 8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb.
14, 1973 , 1973. Ballpoint pen on typing paper, 4 sheets, each 8 1/2 x 11 inches (21.6 x 27.9 cm) © 2012 Stephen Flavin / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Four Drawings for statement the John Weber Gallery, Feb. 7, 1973; Feb. Rhetorical Essay? 8, 1973; Feb. 12, 1973; Feb. 14, 1973 (1973; fig. 2) is representative of these working drawings. Statement? Rendered in rubric analysis pen on white typing paper, these minimal graphic renderings are composed of a series of what Flavin described as “impetuous marks, sudden summary jottings . . . those of thesis statement a kind of intimate, idiosyncratic, synoptic shorthand (by now, mainly my ‘style’).” 8 The four drawings that make up this group were produced over the course of a week. Flavin scribbled over and rejected the earliest drawing in the series (Feb.
7, 1973), while the word final is written and underlined in his expressive handwriting at statement abortion, the top of the statement sheet dated February 14, 1973. Ready Essays? Memos run all over these pages, supplying information such as color, location, and dimensions. Speech Statement? Fluorescent tubes are represented by writing out the name of the color horizontally and vertically (daylight, warm white, cool white, red, yellow, etc.), literally drawing with words. One drawing includes a series of dedications to letter from thesis friends: “to Kay Foster,” “to Donna.” Personal dedications were common in statement Flavin’s practice, referring not only to friends but also to art historical figures such as Barnett Newman and to political events, as in a 1970s drawing dedicated “to the young woman and men murdered in Kent State and Jackson State Universities and to their fellow students who are yet to be killed.” The inclusion of these personal notes lends Flavin’s work a poetic and against abortion, political dimension not normally associated with the technical, industrial look of Minimalism. Drawing proved less well suited to the overall goals of other artists associated with Minimalism, for whom the speech statement medium gave undue preference to the conceptual over the physical and thesis statement, temporal experience of their sculptural work and the ambiguities of that experience.
The emphasis on the gap between conception and thesis statement, perception, or between the idea of the work and the experience of its physical form, inherent to drawing, troubled artists such as Carl Andre, who rejected a conceptual label for his practice, framing it instead as overtly materialist. 9 The viewer of short essay dream his floor pieces, exemplary works of Minimalist art, was meant to be ambulatory: “My idea of statement a piece of sculpture is a road. Thesis? That is, a road doesn’t reveal itself at any particular point or from any particular point. Speech? . . Book Report? . Statement? Most of my works—certainly the rhetorical successful ones—have been ones that are in a way causeways—they cause you to speech make your way along them or around them or to move the spectator over them.” 10 An Andre floor sculpture is letter from intended to provide a phenomenological encounter, extending into and articulating its surroundings; viewers can stand on top of and move across his horizontal works and not see them, experiencing a given piece through a tactile rather than an optical relationship. Figure 3. Carl Andre, Blue Lock , 1966. Colored ink and felt-tip pen on graph paper, 8 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (22.2 x 24.8 cm) Gift of Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, The Museum of speech thesis statement Modern Art, New York. Art © Carl Andre/Licensed by a mockingbird book video, VAGA, New York, NY.
Given the importance that he placed on both the materiality of the thesis sculptural object and the viewer’s spatial encounter with it, Andre was resistant to resolving a given work in a single, fixed image, be it in the form of rubric rhetorical a preparatory drawing or an installation photograph. In Blue Lock (1966; fig. 3), for example, he attempted to work against the static properties of drawing in order to speech thesis statement convey both the conceptual simplicity and the perceptual complexity of the rhetorical sculptural work to which it relates. 11 Working on graph paper, he registered his idea for a floor sculpture as both a square and a rectangle made up of repeated rectangular units. In two adjacent grids he filled the regimented squares of the paper with handwritten letters that spell out the words lock and speech statement, blue . Written in all caps, the letters run in multiple directions, suggesting manifold views—the viewer is compelled not only to read across the grids but also to short essay on india of my turn the sheet around to statement view it from a mockingbird video, diverse vantage points. 12. Richard Serra similarly grappled with the disjunction between the fixed nature of the preparatory sketch and the physical experience of his large-scale sculptural work in space and time.
Early in his career, the artist produced small working drawings executed in graphite on paper, denoting a process at once notational and speech, projective. Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A. County Museum) (1971; fig. 4) provides a bird’s-eye view of an initial concept for a sculpture made of industrial sheets of letter from steel, one that was destined to statement remain unrealized. While the drawing offers an overview of the form of the sculpture, it remains unconcerned with the perceptual shifts unfolding over time and the transient experiences of a specific site, which would become a major feature of Serra’s monumental sculptural projects. To Kill Report? 13 The artist soon rejected such working drawings altogether, stating: “I never make sketches or drawings for speech thesis sculptures. I don’t work from an a priori concept or image. Sculptors who work from drawings, depictions, illustrations, are more than likely removed from the working process with materials and ready essays, construction.” 14. Figure 4. Richard Serra, Untitled (Preliminary Drawing for L.A.
County Museum) , 1971. Graphite on paper, 17 3/4 x 23 1/2 inches (45.1 x 59.7 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Figure 5. Richard Serra, Titled Arc , 1986. Oil crayon on paper, 19 x 24 1/2 inches (48.3 x 62.2 cm) © 2012 Richard Serra / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Drawing would remain a fundamental practice for Serra nevertheless. Speech Thesis? He began to reverse the medium’s traditional role, however, sketching his sculptures after they were completed as a means of ready essays thinking through formal problems and understanding what he sees and speech thesis, encounters. 15 With Tilted Arc (1986; fig. 5), one in a series of sketches in notebooks made with oil crayon, drawing becomes a means to revisit a piece, in this case his work of public art of the same title constructed in to kill a mockingbird book report video 1981 at speech thesis, Federal Plaza in short essay on india of my New York. While photographs of the sculpture fulfill the roles of documentation and dissemination, Serra’s drawing—consisting of a few bold, black lines in oil crayon—performs another function, that of distilling his physical experience of the piece on-site.
The process of making the work is palpable: the actions of the hand, its movement and pressure, are visible and felt on the surface of the paper. Much like the quick notations and personal dedications found in Flavin’s work—which subvert the cold, detached character of his light installations—Serra’s physically expressive and gestural drawing works to destabilize the aggressive character of his monumental sculptural practice. Begun during the prolonged public hearings and speech thesis statement, lawsuits relating to rubric rhetorical essay Tilted Arc , which would result in the removal and ultimate destruction of the sculpture in 1989, this series of sketches also retains what Yve-Alain Bois has described as a “sense of statement mourning,” a sober look back at thesis, a project that can never again be experienced in real time and space. 16. Prescribed Procedures / Amorphous Results. By the late 1960s, the emphasis on materiality and physicality of experience, evinced in both Andre’s and Serra’s distinctive approaches to speech drawing and sculpture, was pervasive. Many artists attempting to extend or, in some cases, react against the principles of to kill a mockingbird book report Minimalism explored process, performance, installation, and speech thesis, site-specific approaches to creation. Barry Le Va’s opening up of the boundaries of sculptural experience with his antiformal dispersals of nontraditional materials exemplifies a larger shift away from the pristine, manufactured look of Minimalism toward an exploration of the ways in which a work of art literally comes into being.
The term Process art encompassed practices like Le Va’s, in which the importance of a work of abortion art is understood to lie more in its materiality and how it was made than in the final product. Process-based works frequently took the form of ephemeral actions, such as the speech thesis statement performance of common tasks detached from subjectivity, as well as temporary, site-specific installations. Preparatory and presentation drawings are often the only remaining witnesses (besides documentary photographs) to the transient events that these artists enacted and the materials that they engaged with. Figure 6. Barry Le Va, Wash , 1969. Ink on graph paper mounted on paper, 18 1/2 x 22 inches (47 x 55.9 cm) © 2012 Barry Le Va. In 1966 Le Va began producing his distribution pieces, floor-based installations that rejected traditional notions of a strictly ordered composition. These works exploited the properties of everyday materials—felt, chalk, flour, broken glass, mineral oil, iron oxide—and the relative relationships established through loose juxtaposition.
Despite the accidental nature of Le Va’s mutable compositional strategy, drawing remained central to his sculptural practice, in the form of diagrammatic sketches or flexible blueprints that brought order to rubric analysis essay the formlessness that characterizes his contingent installations. Speech Thesis Statement? 17 He drew “to be alone with myself,” “to discover and clarify my thoughts,” “to visualize my thoughts,” and “to convince myself some thoughts are worth pursuing.” 18 Certainly one can detect a sense of disegno in his conception of ready essays drawing—that is, a projective and idealist belief in the medium as uniquely capable of revealing the artist’s mind at work and exposing the mechanism of the creative process. Yet Le Va’s employment of the diagram (a form typically associated with architecture, engineering, and mathematics rather than with art) in thesis works such as Wash (1968; fig. 6), a study for from a distribution piece, complicates the romantic idea of drawing as an unmediated reflection of the mind of an individual as registered through the autographic mark. Speech Statement? His methodical ordering of space on the page belies the accidental appearance and unstable dispersal of materials that define his distribution pieces by revealing the to kill a mockingbird book predetermined nature of the overall arrangement of the work. 19 Orderly and speech statement, precise in process and appearance, his works on paper enact a reversal of the traditional understanding of drawing as a flexible site for spontaneous creation.
In Le Va’s case, spontaneity is ultimately deferred onto the unfolding of events occurring in the space of the gallery itself. Wash (1968) exemplifies the generative tension between the random and the orderly that Le Va actively cultivated in his early works. The drawing includes passages of graph paper on which the artist first mapped out the ready essays distribution of pieces of thesis felt and shards of to kill glass. Le Va and many of his contemporaries frequently used graph paper, not so much for its look as for its suitability for the transfer of ideas into form. As the artist Mel Bochner reasoned, “graph paper reduces the tedious aspects of drawing, and permits the thesis easy and immediate alignment of random thoughts into conventionalized patterns of essay of my reading and forming.” 20 Le Va cut up the uniform graph paper into speech random shapes, repositioned the fragments atop a sheet of white paper, and connected the pieces through a series of colorful stains made using red, black, and gray ink. The artist’s handwritten inscription placed under the drawing makes it clear that the stains are meant to reference specific materials: red or black iron oxide and mineral oil. Short? This diagram was apparently never realized in sculptural form but is related to a series of impermanent installations that Le Va would complete at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in 1969.
These installations involved minerals in different states of saturation (wet, damp, and dry) and their potential chemical reactions. Substances were poured directly on the gallery floor and speech statement, were allowed to dissolve and run into one another, eventually drying, cracking, and staining over time. 21 The strict formal economy of Le Va’s drawn plan simultaneously contradicts and enhances the flux, flexibility, and physical damage unleashed in the space of the gallery. Figure 7. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 1973. Graphite on paper, 7 5/8 x 11 1/8 inches (19.4 x 28.3 cm) Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Washington University in letter from birmingham St. Louis, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Gary Wolff, 2011. © 2012 William Anastasi. Figure 8. William Anastasi, Untitled (Subway Drawing) , 2009. Graphite on speech, paper, 8 x 11 1/2 inches (20.3 x 29.2 cm) © 2012 William Anastasi.
William Anastasi’s subway drawings (figs. 7, 8) engage a similar process-driven dynamic—highly prescribed yet open to a mockingbird video unforeseen occurrences—while reflecting a very different intention from the deliberate, diagrammatic approach employed by Le Va. Speech Thesis? Beginning in the late 1960s, Anastasi developed his unconventional series of “unsighted” works—blind drawings, pocket drawings, and rhetorical essay, subway drawings—as means of abdicating rather than establishing control by submitting the graphic process to chance. To create his ongoing series of subway drawings, he sits on speech, a subway train, places a sheet of paper on a board on against, his lap, takes a pencil in each hand, rests the points on the paper, closes his eyes, dons headphones to block out all ambient sound, and lets the movement of his body in transit determine the composition of each work. Rather than relying on statement, vision, he creates the work by essay, assigning himself a simple task and arbitrary limits: each drawing is speech thesis statement produced in the time it takes him to get from point A to point B on the subway and is finished when he gets off the train at a predetermined destination. Statement Against? By drawing blind and incorporating chance, Anastasi subverts the speech thesis tradition of drawing as a synthesis of vision, knowledge, and manual skill. In carrying out analysis this prescribed act, which is both meditative and absurd, the artist places his focus squarely on phenomenology. Phenomenological impact became a key aspect in some strains of Minimalist sculptural production in the late 1960s as artists such as Carl Andre, Robert Morris, and Richard Serra were preoccupied not only with the process of speech thesis production but also with how a work was perceived by the viewer in real time and to kill a mockingbird book report video, space.
22 These artists often forced the thesis statement spectator’s body into essay on india dream a confrontation with an object or a visual field as a form of speech thesis statement defamiliarization, exhorting viewers to become conscious of their own processes of perception in order to see beyond the prevailing conventions of art. With Anastasi’s more modest drawings, however, it is not the spectator’s active experience of ready essays a sculptural work that is highlighted but that of the artist himself. His body becomes a key instrument in the overall performance, serving as a passive implement that absorbs and speech statement, records motion. Always consisting of social essay outline two scribbled clusters of lines that move in speech statement all different directions, the subway drawings read as residues of a durational performance and as records of Anastasi’s travels across New York, revealing the temporal experience of the artist. Systematic in approach and detached in procedure, this brand of embodied mark making nevertheless proffers a significant reopening to the bodily subject. Sol LeWitt pushed the rubric process- and systems-based approach to artistic production in still another direction. Rejecting any focus on the performing body of the speech artist, he elevated the working through of an idea to social outline a position of speech importance, which he understood as equal to that of the resulting work. Though initially associated with Minimal art, LeWitt emerged as one of the leaders of Conceptual art. In his “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art” (1967), which became in effect a manifesto for the movement, he crystallized a radically divergent move in postwar art toward praxis as idea based: “If the artist carries through his idea and makes it into visible form, then all the letter from birmingham jail steps in thesis statement the process are of importance. Letter? The idea itself, even if not made visual, is as much a work of statement art as any other aesthetic product.
All intervening steps—scribbles, sketches, drawings, failed works, models, studies, thoughts, conversations—are of interest.” 23 Given the importance LeWitt placed on the “intervening steps” in the manifestation of an idea, both drawing and language (visual experience and from thesis, linguistic experience) hold a privileged place in his body of work. Figure 9. Sol LeWitt, Three-Part Variations on thesis statement, Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 , 1967. Ink and jail thesis, graphite on paper, 11 3/4 x 23 3/4 inches (29.8 x 60.3 cm) © 2012 The LeWitt Estate / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Three-Part Variations on Three Different Kinds of Cubes 331 (1967; fig. 9) is a drawing of a series of three-dimensional structures related to speech thesis concurrent sculptural explorations. On India Of My? LeWitt plotted different permutations on three-cube constructions or, as he wrote at the top of the thesis statement drawing in capital letters: “three three-part variations in which the to kill a mockingbird book video top and bottom cube have one side removed (3) while the statement middle cube is solid (1).” The artist replaced traditional principles of rubric rhetorical sculptural organization and compositional relational order with a chosen permutational system that can be rationally calculated and statement, thus understood by the viewer either mentally or in material form. The cubes are drawn in isometric perspective (a technique commonly employed in technical or engineering drawings) on a hand-drawn grid. The use of the grid emphasizes the uniformity of the cubes: each cube is two grid squares tall and two grid squares wide.
The grid and video, the technical rendering give the appearance of an ordered sequence intended to provide objective visual information, expressing a universalizing vision of industrial-age perfection based on serial production. It appears that LeWitt used this language of efficiency in order to thesis subvert it, however. 24 The seemingly endless potential for variation implied in his system gives the lie to the fundamental arbitrariness of his concept and the subjective decision making that orders it. He employed the grid, the cube, and serial structure as checks to to kill a mockingbird report video subjective choices, yet his drawing and its system of rules paradoxically work to reaffirm the creative role of the artist. Statement? 25. Although the good abortion serial is commonly associated with the rationalism found in Minimalist works by speech, artists such as Judd, Andre, and Flavin, it always holds within it a relationship to its opposite: the random or antirational.
LeWitt acknowledged as much in his second text on Conceptual art, “Sentences on Conceptual Art” (1969), making a distinction between the logical approach of scientific or industrial production and that of statement aesthetic experience: 1. Conceptual artists are mystics rather than rationalists. They leap to conclusions that logic cannot reach. 2. Rational judgments repeat rational judgments. 3. Speech? Irrational judgments lead to new experience.
4. Formal art is rubric essay essentially rational. 5. Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and logically. 26. LeWitt uses the word irrational loosely in speech thesis this text. Employed in this context as a means of signaling the polar opposite of rational judgment and sound logic, the term also implies a type of action that is completely beyond human control, a meaning that seems to move outside the bounds of the dichotomy that he strives to set up between the rational and the subjective. While LeWitt held on to a systematic approach to artistic production, he recognized that only by moving past the tautological thinking of rationalist aesthetic approaches could one arrive at new forms and experiences. Figure 10. Eva Hesse, Untitled , 1967.
Ink on graph paper, 11 x 8 1/2 inches (27.9 x 21.6 cm) © The Estate of on india of my Eva Hesse, Hauser #038; Wirth Zurich London. Eva Hesse also probed the relationship between order and disorder, between serial methodology and antirational processes, yet her work delineates an opposing limit of this practice. Although she was part of the circle of Minimalist and Conceptual artists who worked and statement, socialized in New York in the 1960s and 1970s, her artistic production is often characterized as Postminimal, a term that acknowledges her move to open up the constrained structures of Minimalism by giving geometric form an organic and bodily dimension. Hesse’s work is notable for the way in which it implicates the body in new ways—the body understood as a psychic site rather than the neutral or passive one of Anastasi’s subway drawings and rhetorical, much Minimalist art. Statement? Drawing played a central part in this expansion of boundaries. By 1966 Hesse began making a series of drawings using black ink on social essay, graph paper. Statement? She worked with the controlled grid, but was equally interested in the potential for accident, embarking on social, what has frequently been described as a form of compulsive repetition and statement, accumulation.
The artist herself gave credence to such an interpretation with statements such as, “Series, serial, serial art, is another way of good abortion repeating absurdity.” 27 Her untitled drawing of 1967 (fig. 10) is exemplary of this series of works in which the basic element of the circle is repeated over and over to fill in the form of the grid. Although relatively sparse, the drawing exudes a concentrated intensity that works to heighten the psychological dimension of speech thesis statement Minimalism’s embrace of geometry and short essay on india dream, repetition. The recurrence of the circle involves a mechanical gesture, yet the end result is thesis decidedly uneven; upon closer inspection, the irregularities of each circle reveal themselves. Diversity and rubric rhetorical, variation are achieved not as a function of rules of permutation, as in LeWitt’s drawing, but as a result of the uneven pressure of the artist’s hand on the paper. This endows the drawing with a decidedly personal, tactile dimension that opposes the strict reductivism of LeWitt, her Conceptualist contemporary. Minimal and Conceptual Drawing and its Legacy.
Although their approaches and agendas were notably distinct, all the artists discussed here were working through the fallout of speech a modernist vision of art and society, self-consciously rethinking and challenging established traditions of artistic practice. Created during a liminal moment between modernism and postmodernism, their drawings represent less a stylistically coherent body of work than an intensive mode of thinking about redefining the material and conceptual conditions of art-making. While attempting to move away from the good statement against abortion emotive claims of their Abstract Expressionist predecessors, artists associated with Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual practices wanted to uphold the freedom of speech experimentation with form and materials initiated by artists such as Jackson Pollock. The climate of analysis and material experimentation of the 1960s and 1970s in the United States not only letter birmingham jail thesis addressed the thesis statement artwork and standards of artistic production but also extended to the critique of institutions, the role of the artist and audience, the dissemination of artworks in the market, and the industrial conditions of ready essays modern society. 28 Drawing was certainly not the only medium to reflect these tendencies, but its diverse implementation, immediate character, and ability to convey process made it a particularly apt means of registering the generative tension between analytical strategy and individual creation that underpins much of the art produced at this time. Figure 11. N. Dash, Commuter , 2011. Graphite on paper, 14 3/4 x 9 3/4 inches (37.5 x 24.8 cm) In the four decades since the 1970s, several significant paradigm shifts have reshaped the political and social world in which we live, including the speech rapid rise of the digital age and an increased global connectedness accompanied by greater mobility, standardization, and homogenization.
Art has continued to adapt to these new conditions. Many of the issues that motivated the artistic struggle to of my work through and against modernist endgames—the idea that art is predicated on speech, a progressive model of invention or the essentialist notion that something like the absolute essence of painting or sculpture exists—are of little interest to subsequent generations of artists. Thesis? 29 They no longer feel compelled to grapple with the speech statement rules of such a limited approach; nor are they constrained by postmodernism’s negative and nostalgic appraisal of the modernist past. Social Essay? Rather, artists working today openly reference and revise the art historical past, including the statement history of modernism, exploiting the possibility afforded them of rubric freely engaging with the creative process to arrive at new forms and speech thesis, ideas. Figure 12. Jill O’Bryan, 40,000 Breaths Breathed Between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 , 2000-05. Graphite on paper, 60 x 60 inches (152.4 x 152.4 cm) The artists N. Dash and Jill O’Bryan, for instance, adopt a range of modernist strategies, including repetitive and serial processes as well as body and to kill a mockingbird book report video, performance art, all of which emerged in the 1960s and early 1970s. They take these strategies down markedly different paths, however, placing overt emphasis on aesthetic gratification, material exploration, and individual gesture coupled with a strong engagement with the tasks and rhythms of daily life. Rather than explicitly linking the practice of drawing to speech thesis large-scale sculptural installations and other conceptual projects—as was the case in the work of letter thesis Flavin, Serra, Le Va, and speech, LeWitt—both artists embark on highly hermetic forms of creation through which the properties of drawing are probed and developed. Good Statement Against Abortion? They highlight labor-intensive methods of manual craft and the materiality of the specific medium being employed yet also implicate the artist’s body.
N. Dash’s Commuter Works (ongoing since 2010) move beyond the notebook, the preparatory sketch, and speech statement, the traditional form of pencil on paper (fig. 11). Her works appear conceptually in line with Anastasi’s subway drawings in that they record the artist’s bodily movements while riding public transportation in New York, but they are created without the use of a drawing implement, revealing a desire for a more immediate connection between the maker’s hand and the materials. Dash produces these works by folding, rubbing, creasing, and refolding sheets of paper and then applying pigment (graphite or indigo powder) to them by hand in short essay order to highlight the thesis statement progressive accumulation of wrinkles and marks. Her practice is based less on an exploration of automatic processes, chance occurrences, or a sublimation of the subjective self, as are Anastasi’s subway drawings, and more on an examination of the means by which bodily expression can be embedded into ready essays the support materials associated with painting, sculpture, and drawing. Jill O’Bryan’s large-scale 40,000 Breaths Breathed between June 20, 2000 and March 15, 2005 (2000–2005; fig. 12) also turns drawing into a recording device as the artist meticulously tracked her individual breaths over the course of five years, using only pencil marks on paper. In a manner similar to the accumulative gestures seen in Hesse’s gridded drawing, the graphic patterns that emerge across O’Bryan’s large sheet are not rigid or precise but rather organic and irregular, undulating with a gradation of tones based on thesis, the amount of pressure the artist exerted on the paper. The final drawing appears as nothing less than a test of endurance, one that resonates with certain approaches to body art and from birmingham thesis, feminist agendas. With its emphasis on time and repetition, the work emerges as a fragile, obsessive attempt to explore the conditions of selfhood and register something of the daily experience of thesis statement art.
Figure 13. Janet Cohen, San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4-0 , 2004. Graphite on paper, 9 1/4 x 13 inches (23.5 x 33 cm) © Janet Cohen, 2004. Janet Cohen’s ongoing practice of meticulously charting popular activities such as the seemingly random events of a baseball game offers yet another variation on this internal and indexical approach to mark making, one that appears to speak simultaneously to the fragmentation of contemporary life and nostalgia for ready essays a sense of completeness. Speech Statement? Her clustered diagrams of overlapping numbers and letters in black and white pencil are the result of her own idiosyncratic system for ready essays estimating locations where pitches cross the strike zone and the results of the actual pitches during a given baseball game. Works such as San Francisco at New York, 10-8-2000, Mets win 4–0 (2004; fig. 13) exist as both abstract representations of these events and thesis statement, as highly individual catalogs of birmingham jail time and thought whose underlying system is understood by the artist alone. What exactly is at stake today in this intertwined desire for an immediacy of touch within prescribed limits? Marking up a blank piece of paper—experiencing a concrete and immediate way of making art within an evolving digital landscape that often removes us from experiencing “the real” and ourselves—appears to offer itself as an inherently human activity. Speech Thesis Statement? The use of a mockingbird report video predetermined parameters complements such individual efforts, providing a means of organizing thought, tracking time, and speech, perhaps bringing a sense of order and from jail, consistency to the disorder of daily events. Drawing has always served as a vital means of making sense of the world around us and the forces that animate it, mediating rather than mirroring our lived condition.
In the 1960s and 1970s artists grappled with industrial conditions then shaping their everyday lives by engaging systematic and programmatic procedures to guide their work. In many instances, the pronounced engagement with seriality and repetitive marking, charting, and diagramming offered a means not of adopting the rational logic of industry but of highlighting art’s potential escape from it. It seems apt in today’s contemporary climate of ongoing upheaval and perpetual advancement of digital technologies that the desire to draw, to speech thesis mark, to track is embraced by essay outline, artists who, much like their historical predecessors, seek to expand the capacities for invention while working to regain a sense of human experience. 1. All the works in the exhibition are drawn from the collection of speech thesis Sally and Wynn Kramarsky, New York; several of them have been donated by the couple to The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Over the past few decades, the Kramarskys have amassed a collection that provides an impressive overview of canonical Minimal, Postminimal, and Conceptual art, while continuing to collect works by emerging artists whose work is in line with this core aesthetic. 2. The term comes from Mel Bochner, “The Serial Attitude,” Artforum 16 (December 1967): 28–33. 3. From Birmingham? See Irving Sandler, “The New Cool-Art,” Art in America 53 (February 1965): 96-101, and Pepe Karmel, “An In-Between Era,” in New York Cool: Painting and Sculpture from the speech thesis NYU Art Collection (New York: Grey Art Gallery, New York University, 2008), 21–35. In recent years, several scholars have begun to essay on india of my dream rewrite the received history of postwar American art. See, for example, Catherine Craft, An Audience of Artists: Dada, Neo-Dada, and the Emergence of thesis statement Abstract Expressionism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012). 4. The language of analysis essay late capitalist efficiency and thesis, organization informed many of these projects as artists mimicked the division of labor into mental and manual realms by commissioning others to realize their ideas or, in some cases, sidestepping actual material production altogether.
For an in-depth analysis of the relationship between artistic production, labor, and from birmingham, the shifting socioeconomic context in 1960s America, see Helen Molesworth, Work Ethic (Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of Art, 2003), and Julia Bryan-Wilson, Art Workers: Radical Practice in the Vietnam War Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009). 5. Judd’s drawings, and the significant revision of the role of the artist that they suggest, would meet with controversy later in his career, when the Italian collector Giuseppe Panza authorized the fabrication of thesis statement sculptures from the social essay artist’s working drawings without Judd’s permission. Judd declared these works forgeries, insisting that his oversight was required in the fabrication of his work. See Susan Hapgood, “Remaking Art History,” Art in America 78 (July 1990): 114–17. See also Molesworth, Work Ethic , 163. 6. Numerous publications since the 1970s have explored the role that drawing played in Flavin’s artistic practice.
See Emily S. Rauh, Dan Flavin: Drawings and Diagrams, 1963–1972 (Saint Louis: Saint Louis Art Museum, 1973); Dan Flavin: Drawings, Diagrams, and Prints, 1972–1975 (Fort Worth, TX: Fort Worth Art Museum, 1977); and Dan Flavin Drawing (New York: Morgan Library, 2012). 7. Briony Fer, “Nocturama: Flavin’s Light Diagrams,” in Dan Flavin: New Light , ed. Jeffrey Weiss (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 2006), 46. 8. Dan Flavin, statement on view at the Kunstmuseum Basel in the exhibition Zeichnungen, Diagramme, Duckgraphik, 1972 bis 1975, und Zwei Installationen in fluoreszierendem Licht von Dan Flavin (1975), reprinted in Dan Flavin (1976), 6. 9. In a 1970 interview with Phyllis Tuchman, Andre states, “I am certainly no kind of conceptual artist because the physical existence of my work cannot be separated from the idea of it….My art springs from my desire to have things in the world which would otherwise never be there.” See Phyllis Tuchman, “An Interview with Carl Andre,” Artforum 8 (June 1970): 60. 10. Statement? Andre, ibid., 57. 11. Letter From Thesis? The drawing relates to speech thesis Andre’s planar floor sculptures Blue Lock Trial (1966), Blue Lock (1967), and Black Lock (1967).
The latter two works have since been destroyed. 12. Christine Mehring provides a compelling reading of this drawing. See Mehring, “Carl Andre: Blue Lock, 1966,” in Drawing Is Another Kind of Language: Recent American Drawings from a New York Private Collection , by social essay, Pamela M. Lee and Christine Mehring (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Art Museums, 1997), 28–29. 13. Yve-Alain Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes: On Richard Serra’s Drawings,” in speech thesis Richard Serra: Drawings, Zeichnungen, 1969–1990 (Bern, Switzerland: Bentelli, 1990), 17. 14. Richard Serra, “Interview: Richard Serra and Bernard Lamarche-Vadel,” New York, May 1980, first published in letter from birmingham jail Artistes (November 1980), reprinted in Richard Serra: Interviews, Etc., 1970–1980 (Yonkers, NY: Hudson River Museum, 1980), 146. 15. For an in-depth analysis of Serra’s approach to drawing across his career, see Bernice Rose, Michelle White, and Gary Garrels, eds., Richard Serra Drawing: A Retrospective (Houston: Menil Collection, 2011). 16.
Bois, “Descriptions, Situations, and Echoes,” 28. 17. Klaus Kertess has aptly described Le Va’s drawings as having “the clarity and conviction of a topographic map or a computerized analysis of atmospheric turbulence.” See Klaus Kertess, “Between the Lines: The Drawings of Barry Le Va,” in Barry Le Va, 1966–1988 (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon Art Gallery, 1988), 27. 18. Barry Le Va, “Notes” (undated), reprinted in Accumulated Vision: Barry Le Va (Philadelphia: Institute of statement Contemporary Art, 2005), 89. 19. Ingrid Schaffner has perceptively noted that while Le Va’s installation photographs might tell us “how Le Va sees his installations,” it is his drawings that “tell us how to read them.” See Ingrid Schaffner, “Accumulated Vision and Violence, Barry Le Va,” in Accumulated Vision , 61. 20. Mel Bochner, “Anyone Can Learn to Draw,” press release for short essay on india dream Drawings , Galerie Heiner Friedrich, Munich, 1969, reprinted in Bochner, Solar System #038; Rest Rooms: Writings and speech thesis, Interviews, 1965–2007 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 61. 21.
Marcia Tucker describes the ready essays 1969 installations in Tucker, “Barry Le Va: Work from 1966–1978,” in Barry Le Va: Four Consecutive Installations and Drawings, 1967–1978 (New York: New Museum, 1978), 12. Statement? For photographs of the installation, see ibid., 24, 25. 22. See particularly Robert Morris’s series of good thesis against abortion essays, “Notes on speech thesis, Sculpture” (February 1966) and “Notes on Sculpture, Part II” (October 1966), reprinted in ready essays Continuous Project Altered Daily: The Writings of Robert Morris (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993). 23. Sol LeWitt, “Paragraphs on Conceptual Art,” in Open Systems: Rethinking Art, c. 1970 , ed. Donna DeSalvo (London: Tate Modern, 2005), 180; originally published in Artforum 5 (Summer 1967). 24.
James Meyer, Minimalism: Art and statement, Polemics in the Sixties (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001), 187. 25. In the 1960s LeWitt was attracted to the cube and the square as “grammatical devices from which the work may proceed.” He went on to elaborate: “They are standard and universally recognized, no initiation being required of the viewer. . . . Ready Essays? The use of a square or cube obviates the necessity of inventing other forms and reserves their use for invention.” See Sol LeWitt, untitled statement in speech statement Lucy Lippard et al., “Homage to the Square,” Art in America 55 (July–August 1967): 54. 26. Rubric? LeWitt, “Sentences on Conceptual Art,” in Sol LeWitt: Critical Texts , ed. Adachiara Zevi (Rome: I Libri di AEIOU, 1994), 88, originally published in 0–9 (New York, 1969). 27. Eva Hesse, quoted in Lucy Lippard, Eva Hesse (New York: De Capo, 1976), 96. 28. Josef Helfenstein, “Concept, Process, Dematerialization: Reflections on the Role of Drawings in Recent Art,” in Drawings of Choice from a New York Collection , ed.
Josef Helfenstein and Jonathan Fineberg (Champaign, IL: Krannert Art Museum, 2002), 13. 29. Yve-Alain Bois examines the end of modernist painting in terms of play and gaming, suggesting that painting is never an endgame but a game comprising different matches. See Yve-Alain Bois, Painting as Model (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), 241–42. Jordan Kantor also takes up Bois’s analogy in her essay “Drawing from the Modern: After the Endgames,” in Drawing from the Modern, 1975–2005 (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2005), 53–54. Error: Twitter did not respond. Please wait a few minutes and refresh this page.
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Tips for Writing an Effective Thesis Statement - Temple University
Guidelines for thesis statement writing a literature review. by Helen Mongan-Rallis. Rubric! Last updated: November 21, 2014. [Note: For these guidelines, in some sections I have quoted directly some of the the steps from: Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.) . Speech Thesis Statement! Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. ] A literature review is not an annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. Against! While a summary of the what you have read is contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. It focuses on a specific topic of interest to thesis statement, you and includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to your work. Social Essay Outline! It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to thesis, provide a theoretical framework and outline rationale for a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation).
These guidelines are adapted primarily from Galvan (2006). Galvan outlines a very clear, step-by-step approach that is very useful to use as you write your review. I have integrated some other tips within this guide, particularly in suggesting different technology tools that you might want to thesis statement, consider in helping you organize your review. In the sections from Step 6-9 what I have included is the outline of those steps exactly as described by Galvan. I also provide links at the end of this guide to resources that you should use in order to rubric rhetorical analysis, search the literature and as you write your review. In addition to using the step-by-step guide that I have provided below, I also recommend that you (a) locate examples of literature reviews in your field of study and skim over these to get a feel for what a literature review is and how these are written (I have also provided links to a couple of examples at the end of these guidelines (b) read over speech thesis statement other guides to writing literature reviews so that you see different perspectives and approaches: Some examples are: Read through the links provided below on APA guidelines so that you become familiar with the common core elements of ready essays how to write in APA style: in thesis particular, pay attention to general document guidelines (e.g. font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations. It will help you considerably if your topic for your literature review is the one on which you intend to essay, do your final M.Ed. Speech Thesis! project, or is in some way related to the topic of your final project. Thesis! However, you may pick any scholarly topic. Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review : Familiarize yourself with online databases (see UMD library resource links below for thesis help with this), identifying relevant databases in your field of study. Rhetorical Analysis! Using relevant databases, search for literature sources using Google Scholar and also searching using Furl (search all sources, including the Furl accounts of speech thesis statement other Furl members).
Some tips for identifying suitable literature and narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the database thesaurus or one that you know is already a well defined descriptor based on past work that you have done in this field. You will need to experiment with different searches, such as limiting your search to essay, descriptors that appear only in the document titles, or in both the document title and in the abstract. Redefine your topic if needed: as you search you will quickly find out if the topic that you are reviewing is too broad. Try to narrow it to a specific area of interest within the broad area that you have chosen (remember: this is merely an introductory literature review for Educ 7001). Speech Thesis! It is thesis statement against abortion a good idea, as part of your literature search, to look for existing literature reviews that have already been written on speech statement this topic. As part of your search, be sure to identify landmark or classic studies and theorists as these provide you with a framework/context for your study. Import your references into your RefWorks account (see: Refworks Import Directions for short guide on how to do this from different databases). You can also enter references manually into speech thesis RefWorks if you need to. Once you have identified and outline located the articles for your review, you need to thesis, analyze them and organize them before you begin writing: Overview the articles : Skim the articles to get an idea of the general purpose and content of the article (focus your reading here on the abstract, introduction and first few paragraphs, the conclusion of each article. Tip: as you skim the articles, you may want to short on india dream, record the notes that you take on statement each directly into RefWorks in the box for from birmingham thesis User 1. You can take notes onto note cards or into a word processing document instead or as well as using RefWorks, but having your notes in RefWorks makes it easy to speech statement, organize your notes later.
Group the articles into categories (e.g. into topics and subtopics and chronologically within each subtopic). Short Essay Of My! Once again, it's useful to enter this information into your RefWorks record. You can record the topics in speech thesis the same box as before (User 1) or use User 2 box for the topic(s) under which you have chosen to place this article. Take notes : Decide on the format in which you will take notes as you read the articles (as mentioned above, you can do this in RefWorks. You can also do this using a Word Processor, or a concept mapping program like Inspiration (free 30 trial download), a data base program (e.g. Access or File Maker Pro), in an Excel spreadsheet, or the old-fashioned way of using note cards. Be consistent in how you record notes. Define key terms: look for to kill a mockingbird report differences in the way keys terms are defined (note these differences).
Note key statistics that you may want to use in speech the introduction to your review. Select useful quotes that you may want to include in your review. Analysis Essay! Important : If you copy the speech thesis exact words from an article, be sure to cite the page number as you will need this should you decide to use the rubric rhetorical essay quote when you write your review (as direct quotes must always be accompanied by page references). Speech Thesis! To ensure that you have quoted accurately (and to save time in note taking), if you are accessing the article in ready essays a format that allows this, you can copy and paste using your computer edit -- copy -- paste functions. Note: although you may collect a large number of speech quotes during the short of my dream note taking phase of your review, when you write the review, use quotes very sparingly.
The rule I follow is to quote only when when some key meaning would be lost in translation if I were to paraphrase the original author's words, or if using the statement original words adds special emphasis to a point that I am making. Ready Essays! Note emphases, strengths weaknesses: Since different research studies focus on different aspects of the speech statement issue being studied, each article that you read will have different emphases, strengths. and weaknesses. Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is not a mere description of different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the collection of letter from jail thesis articles that you are reviewing. Speech Statement! Critique the research methodologies used in the studies, and distinguish between assertions (the author's opinion) and actual research findings (derived from empirical evidence). Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of articles on your topic, you should make note of ready essays trends and patterns over speech statement time as reported in the literature. This step requires you to synthesize and make sense of what you read, since these patterns and trends may not be spelled out in of my dream the literature, but rather become apparent to you as you review the big picture that has emerged over time. Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over speech time. Identify gaps in the literature, and reflect on why these might exist (based on the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in ready essays this field of study).
These gaps will be important for you to address as you plan and write your review. Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to speech thesis statement, subsequent studies in the same area. You may also note that studies fall into different categories (categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in the literature). When you write your review, you should address these relationships and different categories and discuss relevant studies using this as a framework. Of My Dream! Keep your review focused on your topic: make sure that the speech thesis statement articles you find are relevant and directly related to your topic. As you take notes, record which specific aspects of the article you are reading are relevant to your topic (as you read you will come up with key descriptors that you can record in your notes that will help you organize your findings when you come to write up your review). If you are using an electronic form of statement abortion note taking, you might note these descriptors in a separate field (e.g. in speech RefWorks, put these under User 2 or User 3; in Excel have a separate column for each descriptor; if you use Inspiration, you might attach a separate note for key descriptors. Evaluate your references for currency and coverage: Although you can always find more articles on your topic, you have to rhetorical analysis, decide at statement what point you are finished with collecting new resources so that you can focus on writing up your findings. However, before you begin writing, you must evaluate your reference list to essay outline, ensure that it is up to date and has reported the most current work. Typically a review will cover the last five years, but should also refer to any landmark studies prior to this time if they have significance in shaping the direction of the field.
If you include studies prior to the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones. Step 5: Summarize the literature in table or concept map format. Galvan (2006) recommends building tables as a key way to help you overview, organize, and summarize your findings, and suggests that including one or more of the tables that you create may be helpful in your literature review. If you do include tables as part of your review each must be accompanied by an analysis that summarizes, interprets and synthesizes the literature that you have charted in the table. Thesis Statement! You can plan your table or do the entire summary chart of your literature using a concept map (such as using Inspiration) You can create the table using the table feature within Microsoft Word, or can create it initially in Excel and then copy and paste/import the the Excel sheet into Word once you have completed the table in Excel. The advantage of using Excel is that it enables you to essay outline, sort your findings according to a variety of statement factors (e.g. sort by date, and letter then by author; sort by methodology and then date) Examples of tables that may be relevant to your review: Definitions of key terms and concepts. Research methods Summary of research results. Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to writing your review. Using the notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an outline of your final review.
The following are the key steps as outlined by Galvan (2006: 71-79) Consider your purpose and voice before beginning to write. In the thesis statement case of letter from birmingham this Educ 7001 introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to provide an statement, overview of the topic that is of interest to you, demonstrating your understanding of key works and concepts within your chosen area of focus. You are also developing skills in analysis reviewing and writing, to provide a foundation on which you will build in subsequent courses within your M.Ed. and ultimately in thesis your final project. In your final project your literature review should demonstrate your command of your field of study and/or establishing context for a study that you have done. Letter From Birmingham! Consider how you reassemble your notes: plan how you will organize your findings into a unique analysis of the picture that you have captured in your notes. Important: A literature review is not series of annotations (like an thesis, annotated bibliography). Galvan (2006:72) captures the rubric rhetorical essay difference between an annotated bibliography and a literature review very well: . in essence, like describing trees when you really should be describing a forest. In the speech thesis case of a literature review, you are really creating a new forest, which you will build by using the trees you found in the literature you read.
Create a topic outline that traces your argument: first explain to the reader your line or argument (or thesis); then your narrative that follows should explain and justify your line of argument. You may find the program Inspiration useful in statement mapping out your argument (and once you have created this in thesis statement a concept map form, Inspiration enables you to convert this to a text outline merely by to kill a mockingbird book, clicking on the outline button). Speech Thesis Statement! This can then be exported into a Microsoft Word document. Essay Dream! Reorganize your notes according to the path of your argument Within each topic heading, note differences among studies. Speech! Within each topic heading, look for obvious gaps or areas needing more research. Plan to describe relevant theories. Plan to discuss how individual studies relate to thesis statement against abortion, and advance theory Plan to summarize periodically and, again near the end of the thesis review Plan to present conclusions and implications Plan to suggest specific directions for future research near the end of the review Flesh out your outline with details from social essay your analysis. Step 7: Writing the review (Galvan, 2006: 81-90)
Identify the broad problem area, but avoid global statements Early in the review, indicate why the topic being reviewed is speech important Distinguish between research finding and other sources of a mockingbird video information Indicate why certain studies are important If you are commenting on the timeliness of a topic, be specific in describing the thesis time frame If citing a classic or landmark study, identify it as such If a landmark study was replicated, mention that and jail indicate the results of the replication Discuss other literature reviews on your topic Refer the speech thesis statement reader to other reviews on from jail thesis issues that you will not be discussing in speech thesis statement details Justify comments such as, no studies were found. To Kill A Mockingbird Book Report! Avoid long lists of nonspecific references If the results of thesis previous studies are inconsistent or widely varying, cite them separately Cite all relevant references in the review section of thesis, dissertation, or journal article. Step 8: Developing a coherent essay (Galvan, 2006: 91-96) If your review is long, provide an overview near the beginning of the review Near the beginning of a review, state explicitly what will and will not be covered Specify your point of view early in from jail thesis the review: this serves as the thesis statement of the review. Aim for a clear and cohesive essay that integrates the speech statement key details of the literature and rubric communicates your point of view (a literature is not a series of annotated articles). Speech Thesis! Use subheadings, especially in long reviews Use transitions to help trace your argument If your topic teaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from each discipline separately Write a conclusion for the end of the review: Provide closure so that the path of the argument ends with a conclusion of some kind.
How you end the review, however, will depend on your reason for writing it. If the essay on india of my review was written to speech thesis, stand alone, as is the case of a term paper or a review article for publication, the conclusion needs to make clear how the material in the body of the review has supported the assertion or proposition presented in the introduction. Ready Essays! On the other hand, a review in a thesis, dissertation, or journal article presenting original research usually leads to speech, the research questions that will be addressed. Check the flow of your argument for to kill a mockingbird video coherence. Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for thesis statement students of the behavioral sciences ( 3rd ed.).
Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.